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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Szafarski on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMS 1010 at Ohio University taught by Daniel West in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Human Communication in Communication Studies at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Chapter 5: Verbal Communication Language: a collection of symbols, letters or words with arbitrary meanings that are governed by the rules and used to communicate Language must be… Encoded: translated into thought Decoded: assigned meaning Language consists of… Signs: produce meaning in interaction with receivers Codes: systems into which signs are organized The 4 Rules of Language… 1. Phonology: the way sounds are created to form words (Ghoti/ GH-0- TI/Fish) 2. Syntax: the way in which words are combined into sentences (I am hungry. Am I hungry?) 3. Semantics: the meanings of words on the basis of their relationship to one another and to elements in the environment (You are COOL. I would like a COOL drink) 4. Pragmatics: how language is used in practice (How are you doing? Howsitgoing?) a. Phatic communication: words and phrases to be polite in conversation Language and Culture… Culture is transmitted through language Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: the perception of reality is determined by thoughts and thoughts are limited by language. Language shapes reality o Jobs o Location Language Organizes… We use language to describe things to others Language is Arbitrary … Denotative Meaning: Dictionary Connotative Meaning: Personal Language is Abstract… Language moves us to more specific descriptions Hiyakawa (1978) Ladder of Abstraction Language: Obstacle or Enhancement? Grammatical Errors Colloquialisms: Informal phrases (Have a nice day) Cliché: an expression that has lost originality and force through overuse Euphemisms: Pleasant expression, socially polite Doublespeak: Purposes constructed to disguise actual meaning Slang: words that belong to a specific group Profanity Jargon: Job related language Informal and IM Language: internet words Regionalisms: phrases/words specific to regions Sexist, Racist, Heterosexist, Ageist Language
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