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Chapter 4 Psychology Notes

by: Hannah Smith

Chapter 4 Psychology Notes 23512

Marketplace > University of Toledo > Psychlogy > 23512 > Chapter 4 Psychology Notes
Hannah Smith
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These notes cover Chapter 4: Consciousness in the 4th edition Psychology textbook by Ciccarelli and White.
Introductory Psychology
Jason Brouwer
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Smith on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 23512 at University of Toledo taught by Jason Brouwer in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Toledo.


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Date Created: 02/02/16
Chapter 4: Consciousness  4.1 What is Consciousness?  Consciousness- contains several definitions (one for nearly every field in which consciousness is studied) no single stream of consciousness but rather multiple channels each handling its own task; channels operate in parallel  People organize their conscious experience through their influences  Definition of Consciousness  Consciousness- is your awareness of everything that is going on around you and inside your own head at any given moment, which you try to organize as your behavior including your thoughts, sensations, and feelings  generated by a set of action potential in the communication among neurons just sufficient to produce specific perception, memory, or experience in our awareness  walking consciousness- people’s time awake in which their thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear and organized, they feel alert  Altered State of Consciousness  Altered state of consciousness- occurs when there is a shift in the quality or pattern of you mental activity  Thoughts may become fuzzy and disorganized  You may feel less alert  Sometimes being in an altered state you are in a state of increased awareness  Altered State of Divided consciousness  Example- when you drive to work or school and wonder how you got there  Can be dangerous  Examples of Altered Consciousness  Daydreaming  Being hypnotized  Achieving a meditative state  Being under the influence of caffeine, tobacco, or alcohol  Sleep  4.2 Sleep  The Biology of Sleep  People must sleep  Biological rhythms- (the reason people must sleep) natural cycles of activity that the body must go through; may biological rhythms take place on a daily basis  The Rhythms of Life: Circadian Rhythms  Circadian rhythm- a cycle of bodily rhythm that occurs over a 24 hour period (EX- a sleep cycle)  the sleep cycle is controlled by the brain, specifically by an area within the hypothalamus, the tiny section of the brain that influences the glandular system  The role of the hypothalamus: The mighty mite  Melatonin- a normally secreted by the pineal gland, used to hopefully sleep better and perhaps even slow the effects of aging  may be linked to higher metabolism  helps people who suffer from sleep problems due to shift work  jet leg  Suprachiasmatic nucleus- area in which the release of melatonin is influenced by structure deep within the tiny hypothalamus; internal clock that tells people when to wake up and when to fall asleep  Sensitive to light changes- as daylight fades the SCN tells the pineal gland to secrete the melatonin which causes you to become sleepy; as the light reaches your eyes SCN tells the pineal gland to stop secreting melatonin  Jet leg- in which the body’s circadian rhythm has been disrupted by traveling to another time zone, melatonin supplements are used to treat this  The importance of sleep and the price of not sleeping  Young adults need about 7 to 9 hours of sleep as people age they need about 6 hours  Micro sleeps- brief sidesteps into sleep lasting only a couple of seconds  sleep deprivation- or loss of sleep, resulting in problems in concentration and irritability  Lack of sleep can cause insulin resistance which can lead to liabilities  Sleep is important in forming memories  Theories of Sleep  The Adaptive Sleep Theory  Adaptive theory- theory of sleep proposing that animals and humans evolved sleep patterns to avoid predators by sleeping when predators are most active  The Restorative theory of sleep  Restorative theory- states that sleep is necessary to the physical health of the body  during sleep, chemicals that are used up during the day’s activities are replenished and cellular damage is repaired  brain plasticity is enhanced by sleep  4.3 The Stages of Sleep  Two kinds of Sleep  REM (rapid eye movement) Sleep- is a relatively psychologically active sleep when dreaming takes place; voluntary muscles are inhibited meaning a person moves very little  Non-REM (NREM) Sleep- spans from lighter stages to much deeper, more restful sleep; person’s body is free to move around  Electroencephalograph(EEG)- allows scientist to record the brain wave activity as a person passes through various stages of sleep  Beta waves- very small and very fast ; a person who is wade awake and mentally active  Alpha waves- slightly larger and slower; a person who is relaxing and getting drowsy  Theta waves- even slower and larger than alpha waves  N1 (R&K Stage 1): Light Sleep  As theta wave activity increases and alpha wave activity fades away  If people are awakes they will not believe that they were actually asleep  Hypnogogic images/ hallucinations- vivid visual events  Hypnic jerk- when you are drifting off to sleep and your body gives a big jerk  N2 (R&K Stage 2): Sleep Spindles  Sleep spindles- brief bursts of activity lasting only a second or two; theta waves are predominant but if people are awakened they will recall being asleep  N3 (R&K Stage 3): Delta Waves Roll In  Delta waves- the slowest and the largest waves; these waves increase in this stage from 20 percent to 50 percent  Deepest stage of sleep; slow wave sleep; or deep sleep  Growth hormones are released from the pituitary gland and reach their peak  People who are awakened are often confused  Body growth occurs  R (R&K REM)  After spending time in N3 people will begin to go back through N2  The person is still asleep but in the stage known as REM (paradoxical sleep)  Rem sleep: Perchance to Dream?  When person is awakened from REM sleep they report a dream  Dreams tend to be more vivid, more detailed, longer, and more bizarre  NREM dreams tend to be more thoughts about daily occurrences  Sleep paralysis- when your voluntary muscles are paralyzed during REM sleep  What is the purpose of REM sleep?  People who had a physically exhausting demanding day spend more time in NREM  People who had an emotionally stressful day spend more time in REM  REM rebound- increased amounts of REM sleep after being deprived of REM sleep on earlier nights  Rem myth- Lack of REM sleep can lead to paranoia, seeming mentally ill, studies later failed to produce the same results  4.4 Sleep Disorders  Nightmares and REM behavior disorder  Nightmares- bad dreams occurring during REM sleep  occur more often in children because children spend a greater amount of time in REM  REM behavior disorder- the brain mechanics that normally inhibit the voluntary muscles fail and people can thrash around during their nightmares; fairly serious disorder  Night Terrors  Night terrors- a state of panic experienced while sound asleep  More likely in children and will disappear as they age  May sit up, scream, or run around  Breathing is difficult  Cannot recall what caused them to panic  Happens during NREM  Sleepwalking  Sleepwalking/ somnambulism- occurring during a deep sleep, an episode of moving around or walking around in one’s sleep  More common in child  Partially due to heredity  Most people do not recall it happening  Insomnia  Insomnia- the inability to sleep, stay asleep, or get good quality sleep  Causes of Insomnia  Psychological causes- worrying, trying too hard to fall asleep, or having anxiety  Physiological causes- too much caffeine, indigestion, or aches and pain  How to help insomnia  Go to bed when you are sleepy  Don’t do anything in your bed but sleep  Classical conditioning- pairing cues and automatic responses  Don’t try too hard to fall asleep; don’t look at the clock or calculate how much sleep you are getting  Keep a regular schedule  Don’t take sleeping pills or drink alcohol or other types of drugs that slow down the nervous system  Sleep Apnea  Sleep apnea- when a person stops breathing for ten seconds or more  can cause heart problems  How to Help Sleep Apnea  continuous positive airway pressure device (CPAP)- delivers continuous stream of air under mild pressure  nasal spray to shrink nasal tissue  wearing a nasal opening device  losing weight  simple surgery when the uvula and some soft tissue surrounding it are removed  When present in infants, an alarm sounds when they stop breathing  Narcolepsy  Narcolepsy- is a kind of “sleep seizure,” person may slip into sudden REM sleep  Cataplexy- sudden loss of muscle tone  4.5 Dreams  Freud’s Interpretation: Dreams as wish fulfillment  Freud believed that problems stemmed from conflict and events that has been buried in their unconscious minds since childhood  Manifest Content  Manifest content- of a dream is the actual dream itself  Examples- chad had a dream he was trying to get of out a bath tub; the manifest content of the dream is---- he’s trying to climb out of the bathtub  Latent Content  Latent content- the true meaning of the dream was hidden, only expressed in symbols  Examples- in the dream, the water in the tub might symbolize the waters of birth, and the tub itself might be his mother’s womb  The activation- synthesis hypothesis  dreams are products of activities in the pons  activation-synthesis hypothesis- a dream is merely another kind of thinking that occurs when people sleep  less realistic because it comes from the outside world of reality  the frontal lobes which are in control of daytime thinking are shut down during dreaming which may account for the unrealistic and often bizarre nature of dreams  Activation –information-mode model (AIM)- when the brain is making up a dream to explain its own activation, it uses meaningful bit and pieces of a person’s experiences or memories  AIM is the newer version of activation synthesis hypothesis  What do people dream about?  Most dreams reflect events that occur in everyday life  Across many cultures men often dream more bout men, and women dream about men and women equally  Girls and women tend to dream about people they know, personal appearance concerns, and issues related to family and home  Boys and men tend to have more male characters in their dreams, typically outdoor in an unfamiliar setting, sexual dreams usually with unknown and attractive partners  4.6 The Effects of Hypnosis  Hypnosis- is a state of consciousness in which a person is especially susceptible to suggestion  Steps in hypnotic introduction  The hypnotist tells the person to focus on what is being said  The person is told to relax and feel tired  The hypnotist tells the person to “let go” and accept suggestions easily  The person is told to use vivid imagination  Only 80 percent of people are willing to be hypnotized  Hypnosis is the heighted state of suggestibility  Hypnotic susceptibility- the degree to which a person is a good hypnotic subject, often makes use of a series of ordered suggestions  Fact or Myth: What can hypnosis really do?  Basic suggestion effect- the tendency to act as though their behavior is automatic and out of their control; gives people an excuse to do things they normally would not do because the burden of responsibility for their actions falls on the hypnotist  Hypnosis is a way for people to relax or control pain  Alter sensory perceptions  Theories of Hypnosis  Two ways to view hypnosis  Dissociation- the splitting on conscious awareness  Hypnosis as Dissociation: The Hidden Observer  Believed hypnosis only worked on the immediate conscious mind of a person , while part of the person’s mind remained aware of all that was going on  EXAMPLE- when people drive somewhere familiar and then wonder how they got there; the conscious part it thinking about other things while the other is doing the actual driving  Hypnosis as social role-playing: the social-cognitive explanation  Began with an experiment  Social-cognitive theory of hypnosis- assumes people who are hypnotized are not in an altered state but merely playing the role expected of them in the situation  4.7 The Influence of Psychoactive Drugs  Psychoactive drugs- chemical substances that alter thinking, perception, memory, or some combination of those abilities  Dependence  Physical Dependence  Physical dependence- after using the drug for some period of time, the body becomes unable to function normally without the drug and the person is said to be dependent or addicted  Drug tolerance- as the person continues to use the drug the larger and larger the dose becomes in order to achieve the same initial effect  Withdrawal- when deprived of the drug the user can experience headaches, nausea, and irritability, cramping, and shaking  Negative reinforcement- the tendency to continue a behavior that leads to the removal of or escape from unpleasant circumstances or sensations  Classical conditioning- when cues or familiar surrounding are present it becomes harder to resist the drug because the body and mind have become conditioned, or trained to associate drug use with the cues  Contingency management therapy- patients earn vouchers for negative drug tests; the vouchers can be exchanged for more desirable options like food  Cognitive behavioral interventions- work to change the way people think about the stresses in their lives and react to those stressors, working toward more effective coping without resorting to drugs  Psychological Dependence  Psychological dependence- the belief that the drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological well-being, which is very powerful factor in continued drug use  Positive reinforcement- the tendency of behavior to strengthen when followed by pleasurable consequences  Stimulants- drugs that increase the functioning of the nervous system  Depressants- drugs that decrease the functioning of the nervous systems  Hallucinogens- drugs that alter perceptions and may cause hallucinations  4.8 Stimulants: UP, Up, and Away  A class of drugs that cause either the sympathetic division or the nervous system to increase levels of functioning, temporarily  Amphetamines  Amphetamines- stimulants that are made in laboratories (methedrine, Dexedrine)  Methamphetamine- sometimes used to treat attention deficit disorder or narcolepsy  Used to stay awake for long hours  Depress the appetite  Violence is an outcome of this pill  Cocaine  Cocaine- is a natural drug found in coca plant leaves  Feelings of euphoria and self-confidence  Highest levels of past-year illicit drug dependence or abuse (1.7 million persons)  Can be eaten, smoked, snorted or injected.  Highly addictive and high risk of dependence  Often coincides with depression when drugs wear off.  Crack is a potent and purified form of cocaine  Nicotine  Nicotine- is relatively mild but nevertheless a toxic stimulant, producing a slight rush or sense of arousal as it raises the blood pressure and accelerates the heart  Accounts for nearly 1/5 of the deaths in the US and is (arguably) the single most preventable cause of death.  29.6% of US population report using cigarettes. (Highest rate by adults age 18- 25=43.9%)  Symptoms of nicotine dependence  Attempts to stop or reduce have been unsuccessful.  Attempts to stop have led to withdrawal symptoms (craving, irritability, difficulty concentrating, sleep difficulties, and restlessness.)  Use continues despite serious physical disorder (emphysema) which the smoker knows is exacerbated by use.  Caffeine  Caffeine- the stimulant found in coffee, tea, most sodas, chocolate and many over the counter drugs  Most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world.  Alertness and energy.  90% report using every day.  Can cause restlessness, nervousness, excitement, insomnia, flushed face, GI disturbance, rambling speech, and cardiac arrhythmia.  Down the Valley: Depressants  Depressants- drugs that slow the central nervous system  Major and Minor Tranquilizers  Major tranquilizers- drugs that have a strong depressant effect (sleeping pills)  Barbiturates- drugs that have a sedative (sleep-inducing) effect  Minor tranquilizers- drugs that have a relatively mild depressant effect  Benzodiazepines- these drugs are used the lower anxiety and reduce stress  Example- Valium, Xanax, Halcion, Ativan, Librium  Can be addictive  Rohylpnol- a benzodiazepines tranquilizer also known as the date rape drug  Alcohol  Alcohol- the most commonly used or abused depressant, the chemical resulting from fermentation or distillation of various kinds of vegetable matter  7.7% of US population (18.7 million) is currently alcohol dependent or abusers.  Problems can be inability to function without alcohol and/or an inability to stop once started.  Each year:  1,700 college students die from alcohol-related unintentional injuries  599,000 students are unintentionally injured under the influence.  More than 696,000 students are assaulted by another student who has been drinking.  More than 97,000 students are victims of alcohol-related sexual assault or date rape.  2.1 million students drove under the influence of alcohol last year.  Have both physiological and psychological effects, which are broken down into short term and long term.  Short-term physiological  Depressed CNS, loss of muscle coordination, loss of consciousness, and death.  Short-term psychological  Feelings of happiness, loss of inhibitions, poor judgment, reduced concentration, impaired sexual performance, hangover, depending on situation-could result in negative moods and anger.  Long-term physiological  Increase in tolerance, destruction of brain cells, physical deterioration, liver disease, fetal alcohol syndrome.  Long-term psychological  Preoccupation with drinking, blackouts, loss of control of alcohol intake, Korsakoff’s syndrome.  Narcotics  Narcotics- a type of depressant that suppress the sensation of pain by binding and stimulating the nervous system’s natural receptors sites for endorphins, the neurotransmitters, that naturally deaden pain sensations  Opium- made form he opium poppy, have pain relieving and euphoria inducing properties that have been known for the last 2000 years, highly addictive  Morphine- was created by dissolving opium in an acid and then neutralizing the acid with ammonia, the wonder drug, used to control severe pain  Heroin- was first hailed as the new wonder drug- a derivative of morphine that did not have many of the disagreeable side effects of morphine  Methadone, buprenorphine, naltrexone may be used to control withdrawal symptoms and help treat opiate addictions  4.9 Hallucinogens: Higher and Higher  Hallucinogens- actually cause the brain to alter its interpretation of sensations and can produce sensory distortions very similar to synesthia, false sensory perceptions  Manufactured Highs  LSD  Lysergic acid diethylamide- is synthesized from a grain fungus called ergot  Ergot- commonly grows on rye grain  Only takes a very tiny drop of LSD to feel a high  Does not cause physical dependence  No evidence it is dangerous in and of itself  PCP- causes perceptual distortions, euphoria, nausea, confusion, delusion, and violent psychotic behavior  Can cause aggression, violence, or death from the taker’s recklessness or delusions of invincibility.  Long-term use can result in personality changes.  MDMA  Stimulatory hallucinogens- drugs that produce a mixture of psychomotor stimulant and hallucinogen effects  Causes the release of large amount of serotonin and also blocks the reuptake of this neurotransmitter  User feels euphoria, energized, increased emotional warmth  May damage the serotonin receptors which could lead to depression  Nonmanufactured High  Marijuana- comes from flowers and leaves of the hemp plant called cannabis sativa  Tetrahydrocannabinol- the most psychoactive cannabinoid and active ingredient  40% of US population over the age of 12 has used marijuana.  Euphoria, tranquility, and passivity.  Helpful in treating many ailments (glaucoma, reducing nausea in chemotherapy, AIDS related loss of appetite)  Many agencies have decriminalized having small amounts.


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