New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Bio 102 1/26-1/28 Notes

by: Alyssa Shriver

Bio 102 1/26-1/28 Notes Bio 102

Alyssa Shriver
GPA 2.7
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Introduction to Biology

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Introduction to Biology notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These notes will be on exam one
Introduction to Biology
Dr. Jeremy Chandler
Class Notes




Popular in Introduction to Biology

Popular in Biology

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Shriver on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 102 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Jeremy Chandler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


Reviews for Bio 102 1/26-1/28 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/02/16
Lecture 1/28/16  Today in science o Sex wars: ant queens take sperm from males of other species   Rock pocket mice o Valley of Fires Recreation Area, NM o The mice coat camouflages them from predators   MC1R Gene o Lighter mice have two copies of the light allele  o Darker mice have one copy or two copies of the black allele  Variation and time o How often does a black coat mutation arise?  Depends on  Mutation rate  Reproduction rate  Population size   Mutation Rate  2 per 10^9 sites in DNA  Possible mutation sites in fur gene= 10  Number of copies of fur genes= 2  1 in 25 million offspring have a black coat mutation o Now factor in rate of reproduction: per year >5 offspring o Population size >5,000 females o Total offspring per year= 25,000 o Odd of black mutation: 1 in 25 million o 1 black mouse every 2500 years  Is 1 black mouse per 1000 years a high mutation rate? o No  Selection and time o How long would it take for every mouse to be black?  Depends on  S is the selection coefficient  S is a relative measure of fitness  S is successful at reproducing   Is a black mouse produced 101 survivors out of 100 light colored  mouse   Nonadaptive Evolution o Genetic Drift  Change in allele frequencies between generations that occur purely by chance  Subset of population reproduces  Subset of alleles represented in next generation  Decreases genetic diversity of a population  Gene Flow o Movement of alleles from one population to another o Urbanization can prevent gene flow, can lead to inbreeding    Why is genetic diversity important? o Diverse gene pool gives a population more flexibility to survive in a  changing environment o The more genetically diverse a population, the more ways it has to adapt  Reintroducing genetic diversity o Must bring in new alleles o Mutation o Gene flow   Inbreeding o Mating between closely related individuals o Does not change the allele frequency within a population o Increases the proportion of homozygous individuals to heterozygotes o Ex.  Charles Darwin’s marriage   Inbreeding Depression o Closely related individuals are more likely to share the same alleles o Negative reproductive consequences for a population o Associated with high frequency of homozygous individuals possessing  harmful recessive alleles  The Florida Panther o In 1990’s around 30 or less members of the population remaining o Many of the remaining individuals were sick and a multitude of defects  ranging from crooked tails to heart conditions in addition to poor sperm  quality o In 1995 8 female pumas from Texas were brought in to bolster the  population   Adaptive and Nonadaptive Mechanisms of Evolution o Natural Selection  Individuals with favorable alleles reproduce preferentially,  increasing the frequency of these alleles  Adaptive  Usually genetic diversity decreases—unfavorable alleles may be  eliminated from the population o Mutation  New alleles are created randomly  Nonadaptive  Usually genetic diversity increases—new alleles are introduced into the population o Genetic Drift  Allele frequencies change due to chance events  Nonadaptive  Genetic diversity usually decreases—alleles may be eliminated  from the population o Gene Flow  Alleles move from one population to another  Nonadaptive  Genetic diversity increases—new alleles are added to the  population   Homozygous vs. heterozygous review o Tt­ heterozygous (hybrid) o BB­ homozygous dominant o Bb­ homozygous recessive o TT­ homozygous dominant o Tt­ homozygous recessive o Bb­ heterozygous (hybrid)   Hardy­Weinberg equilibrium o In a nonevolving population, allele and genotype frequencies do not  change over time  o Use to identify genes that have changed because of evolutionary  mechanisms o Baseline to judge if a population is evolving o Hardy­Weinberg equation  P2+2pq+q2=1  P2 is the frequency of homozygous dominant  2pq is the frequency of heterozygotes  q2 is the frequency of homozygous recessives o Five necessary conditions  No mutation introducing new alleles into the population  No natural selection favoring some alleles over others  An infinitely large population size (and, therefore, no genetic drift)  No influx of alleles from neighboring populations (i.e. no gene flow)  Random mating of individuals   What is a species? o Biological species concept   A population of individuals whose members can interbreed and  produce fertile offspring  Different species cannot mate because they are reproductively  isolated  1/26/16 Lecture The Voyage of the Beagle, Evolution, and Speciation  What’s the main reason for genetic diversity? o DNA  Robert Fitzroy o Captain of the Beagle o Devout in religious beliefs  Science of the day­ theologians  o Debated with Darwin on the cruise  Alexander von Humboldt o Geologists  John Henslow o Darwin’s primary mentor at Cambridge University  o Botanist   Contributor’s to Darwin’s thinking included: o Charles Lyell  Geologist, uniformitarianism  The Earth is older than 6,000 years o George Cuvier  First to say species go extinct o Thomas Malthus  Struggle for existence  Carrying capacity: J curve/ S curve o Jean Baptiste de Lamarck  Evolution by acquired characteristics  First evolution theory  Giraffes get taller due to stretching   Alfred Russel Wallace Independently Drew the Same Conclusions as Darwin o Papers from Wallace and Darwin were jointly presented to the Linnaean  Society in 1858  The Second Voyage of the Beagle  o 1831­1836 o Different species on different islands o Origin of species study   Dust collected from the masthead on the Beagle o Some of the original samples were added to growth medium and  cultivated viable organisms after over one hundred of years in storage  Numerous fungi, bacteria were found  There are the same organisms everywhere in the world, but once they get to a  place, natural selection occurs and decides whether or not the organism thrives  or doesn’t  Bioluminescence is when oxygen in high concentrations can be harmful to  microorganisms   Darwin visited Brazil’s Atlantic rainforest before lodging began, and discovered  the incredible diversity of its flora and fauna which differed greatly from Great  Britain’s.   Discomfort with Evolution o The upheaval surrounding evolution began with publication of On the  Origin of Species and continues nearly 150 later o An early disparaging view of evolutionary theory and its creator An early disparaging view of evolutionary theory and its creator.  Darwin’s voyage of the Beagle o In Argentina he found fossils of extinct mammals and discovered that they  were closely related to species that no longer existed  What percent of species are extinct? o 99% o Most of the extinctions are what we call “background extinctions”  Background Extinction o The ongoing extinction of individual species due to  environmental or ecological factors such as climate  change, disease, loss of habitat, or competitive  disadvantage in relation to other species. Background  extinction occurs at a fairly steady rate over geological  time and is the result of normal evolutionary  processes, with only a limited number of species in an  ecosystem being affected at any one time.   Voyage to the Galapagos Islands o In the Galapagos Islands he discovered that animals like birds and turtles  differed slightly from one island to another  o The HMS Beagle stayed at the Galapagos Islands from September 15  through October 20, 1835   Galapagos Giant Tortoises o Galapagos in Spanish for saddle/tortoise o Although the Galapagos tortoises looked pretty much alike to Darwin,  Nicholas Dawson, the Englishman in charge of Ecuador’s penal colony on  Charles Island, told Darwin that he could tell which island any particular  tortoise cam from, because there were slight differences from one island  to the next. o Again, the significance of this was no evident to Darwin until after he had  returned to England and thought about it  Galapagos Island finches o Four species of finches found on the Galapagos Islands o Darwin did not realize they were all finches, but the English ornithologist  John Gould told him they were; Gould identified a total of 13 different  species among Darwin’s specimens o The Galapagos finches have been extensively studied since Darwin’s  time, and their evolution (back and forth) recorded   Galapagos Marine Iguanas o Their diet consists of mostly seaweed, which is unusual for land animals  such as the iguana o Their feet are webbed so they can swim in the sea o On land they are sluggish in movements but swim with ease and  quickness in the sea o They regulate their temperature by either laying flat on the lava to catch  the heat or perching up to catch the breeze o The brightly colored lizards are colored that way from eating plentiful  seaweed and this attracts female lizards because the male is healthy  therefore the offspring with be healthy  o Colors due from algal blooms in summer and feeding on those blooms  El Nino Effect on marine iguanas? o Dries up all the algal, therefore all the iguanas starve and more than 99%  of the iguanas die off   The Galapagos Islands o “Both in space and time, we seem to be brought somewhat near to that  great fact­ that mystery of mysteries­ the first appearance of new beings  on this Earth” o Darwin’s notebooks on the voyage of the Beagle totaled to 1,383 pages  on geology, and 368 pages on zoology  What comes to mind when you see the word “ecosystem”? o Life o Animals o Plants o Environment o Habitat o Other   Urban Evolution o Studying evolution in Manhattan    Population genetics o Study of the genetic makeup if populations and how genetic composition  changes o Gene pool; total collection of alleles in a population o Identify allele frequency  o If the gene pol changes over the course of generations, then evolution has occurred  o Changes in allele frequency over time  o Population evolves o Good, bad, or neutral consequences result in the population becoming  more adapted to its environment­natural selection results in a population  adapting   What causes changes in allele frequency? o Natural Selection  Population is better adapted  o Nonadaptive Evolution  Caused by mutation, genetic drift, and gene flow   Nonadaptive Evolution o Genetic Drift  Changes in allele frequencies between generations that occurs  purely by chance  Subset of population reproduces  Subset of alleles represented in next generation  Decreases genetic diversity of a population   Evidence for Genetic Drift o Researchers collected tail DNA from 312 mice at 15 locations in NYC.  One they analyzed each mouse’s DNA, the researchers wanted to get a  sense of how related the populations were. They assigned mice with  similar genotypes particular colors and sorted all the mice by location.  They found that mice within a population shared more alleles with one  another than they did with mice from other populations.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.