Chapter 7 Powerpoint Notes
Chapter 7 Powerpoint Notes KH 3550
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This 35 page Class Notes was uploaded by Apollo12 on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KH 3550 at Georgia State University taught by Brandenberger in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Evaluation and Instrumentation in Exercise Science in PHIL-Philosophy at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Chapter 7 Assessing and Grading the Students Chapter Objectives After completing this chapter, you should be to 1. Define assessment, alternative assessment, formative assessment, and summative assessment. 2. List and describe the characteristics of authentic assessment. 3. Describe how you may use checklist, rating chart, analytical, and holistic rubrics in the assessment technique. 4. Describe portfolio assessment. 5. List and describe the use of grades. 6. List the three behavior areas and the factors commonly graded in these areas, and state why some factors should not be graded. 7. List and describe the criteria for grades. 7-2 Chapter Objectives 8. Define norm-referenced grading and the grading methods of natural breaks, standard deviation, percentage, and norms (percentiles and T-scores), then describe the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. 9. Define criterion-referenced grading and the grading methods of contract and percentage-correct, then describe the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. 10. Define the weighting of factors and describe a method for performing this technique. 11. Describe four methods for reporting term grades. 12. Describe your grading philosophy and develop a grading method that could be used in a teaching assignment. 7-3 Assessment and Grading *Teaching environment: assessment performed continuously throughout the teaching of a skill. *Assessment - measure, evaluate, identify, and prescribe. *Through assessment teacher can help students perform at their maximum level and succeed in their class endeavors. *Grading means that teacher determines (through assessment) the achievement level of each student toward class objectives and assigns the appropriate grade at conclusion of unit. 7-4 Alternative Assessment • Students are assessed with nontraditional methods • Most popular alternative assessment is authentic assessment • Authentic assessment provides ways for data or information to be gathered and organized so that accurate judgments can be made about each student 7-5 Authentic Assessment *Once class goals have been stated, authentic assessment allows teacher to: - monitor the students’ performance and determine where they are experiencing difficulties - prescribe a correction for learning problems - keep track of students’ progress toward class goals and objectives - fairly assign grades 7-6 Characteristics of Authentic Assessment Formal Record Keeping - time consuming; students may assist Natural Surroundings - conducted while students are performing in a game or under gamelike conditions; may also use rating charts and records during game play 7-7 Characteristics of Authentic Assessment Formative Assessment - conducted throughout the teaching unit - enables teacher to provide students with regular feedback about progress toward the class goals and objectives; allows teachers to diagnose learning problems and prescribe any necessary changes in the teaching unit - done routinely and not limited to designated times or days - can serve to motivate students 7-8 Characteristics of Authentic Assessment Summative Assessment - used to determine students’ achievement of class goals and objectives at conclusion of teaching unit - often used to assign grades 7-9 Characteristics of Authentic Assessment • Technique (Form) and End Result • assessment of each student’s technique and form in performing the skills • made more objective with use of rubrics (a scoring guide), or a set of all key criteria, that is used to determine an individual’s quality of performance 7-10 Characteristics of Authentic Assessment Types of Rubrics Checklist and rating chart – include key components of motor skill and provide students the criteria for successful performance See tables 7.1 and 7.2 Table 7.3 provides guidelines for construction of rating chart 7-11 Characteristics of Authentic Assessment Types of Rubrics Analytical rubric – assess each component of a motor skill Detailed; provide useful information about student’s strengths and weaknesses Use scoring headings with appropriate assessment statements See table 7.4 7-12 Characteristics of Authentic Assessment Types of Rubrics Holistic rubric – includes broad statements which differentiate the levels of performance; no components of skill are listed Teacher is expected to make a judgment about student’s level of performance; more efficient than analytical assessment See table 7.5 7-13 Characteristics of Authentic Assessment Self-Assessment and PeerAssessment - students can be taught to assess their own skill - students must understand how the assessments will be used; must be accurate and consistent - end-result assessment easier for students than technique assessment - for technique assessment, charts or forms must be provided; videotape also may be used - peer assessment probably is better than self-assessment 7-14 Characteristics of Authentic Assessment Portfolio Assessment - student responsible for collection of portfolio contents - portfolio may include: written assignments (e.g., analysis of skill) a pre-assessment of skill level performance goals a planned program for improvement a self-assessment of performance (videotape) peer assessment record of practice sessions written tests other items on which teacher and student have agreed 7-15 Characteristics of Authentic Assessment Portfolio Assessment - purpose of portfolio is to document and exhibit student’s progress, achievements, and effort - students must understand how portfolio will be evaluated 7-16 National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) • Publication - Moving into the Future: National Standards for Physical Education • Includes six standards for a physically educated person, emphasizes the role of assessment in the school environment, and provides assessment resources. • Some states have mandated standards for all educational programs within the particular state. 7-17 Grading *Too many physical educators base grading on attendance, participation, and effort. *Grades are recognized as symbols that denote progress and achievement toward established criterion-referenced or norm-referenced course objectives. Use of Grades Students Parents Teachers Administrators 7-18 Factors Used in Grading Affective Factors - Sportsmanship - Attendance, Participation, and Showering - Effort Cognitive Factors 7-19 Factors Used in Grading Psychomotor Factors • The Activity - Achievement - must establish realistic norm-referenced or criterion-referenced objectives; difficult to establish fair objectives if class has a variety of students with limited movement experiences and students with good movement experiences - Improvement - usually pretest and posttest Problems associated with pretest and posttest 7-20 Factors Used in Grading •Game Performance - tournament play and authentic assessment • Fitness 7-21 Criteria for Grades 1. Should be related to the educational objectives. 2. Should have validity, reliability, and objectivity. 3. Weight (the percentage or portion of the total grade) should be related to the emphasis placed on the factor during the instructional unit. 4. Weights of the factors and method of grading should be understandable to students and parents. 5. Should discriminate good student from poor student. 6. Should have administrative economy. 7-22 Methods of Grading Norm-Referenced Grading * Natural Breaks Method - rank scores and use gaps, or breaks, for cutoff points for letter grades; lacks consistency SEE TABLE 7.6 * Standard Deviation Method - assumes scores are normally distributed and that standard deviation can be used 7-23 Methods of Grading Example for Standard Deviation Method of Grading X = 74; s = 6 Upper limit of B Lower limit of D C = X 0.5s B = X +1.5s D = X - 1.5s = 74 3 = 74 +1.5(6) = 74 - 1.5(6) = 71 to 77 = 83 = 65 A = above 83 C = 71 to 77 F = below 65 B = 78 to 83 D = 65 to 70 7-24 Methods of Grading If large number of scores, percentage of scores for each grade: Grade Standard Deviation Range Percent A 1.5s or more above mean 7 B Between +0.5s and 1.5s 24 C Between +0.5s and -0.5s 38 D Between -0.5s and -1.5s 24 F 1.5s or more below mean 7 Weakness: grade values may not be same from year to year. SEE OTHER EXAMPLES IN TABLE 7.7 7-25 Methods of Grading *Percentage Method - teacher decides what percentage of class is to receive each letter grade; similar to standard deviation method Example Class of 30 students % of student # of students* 15 5 20 6 30 9 20 6 15 5 *Will not total 30 due to rounding of numbers SEE OTHER EXAMPLES IN TABLE 7.8 7-26 Methods of Grading *Percentage Method Weaknesses: 1. Selected percentages may require rounding of numbers; results in a different total number of students than the actual number. 2. When scores are ranked, may have several same scores at cutoff point. 3. Average-ability students will receive higher grades in a class with low-ability students than in a class with high-ability students. 4. If class includes students similar in ability, some students will receive high grades and some will receive low grades. 7-27 Methods of Grading *Norms Method - norms are developed by collecting scores for a large number of individuals of similar sex, age, experience, ability, and other such characteristics; percentiles, T-scores, and z-scores are forms of norms Advantages: 1. May be used for several years. 2. Unaffected by the group being tested because all students could excel. 3. Have consistency. SEE TABLE 7.9 - GRADES ASSIGNED BY PERCENTILES AND T-SCORES 7-28 Criterion-Referenced Grading *Criterion-referenced standards are clearly defined. *Standards may be developed for each grade; students choose to work for a particular grade. *Students are not in competition with each other. Contract Method - Can be used with a class or with each student - Quality, amount, and type of work included in contract - Students may assist in developing the contract - Too often emphasis is on quantity of work rather than quality 7-29 Criterion-Referenced Grading Percentage-Correct Method - Student is advised what percentage of attempts must be correct to earn the various grades. - Standards for grades should be based on previous test scores that have been analyzed. - Sometimes difficult to compare different tests since the level of difficulty for the tests will not always be the same. 7-30 Criterion-Referenced Grading Percentage-Correct Method -If one test is more difficult than another, different weights may be assigned to the tests. - Acceptable grading system if grade standards are determined as objectively as possible. - No limits on number of students who may earn high grades. SEE TABLE 7.10 FOR EXAMPLES 7-31 Which Method of Grading is Best? *Beginning and experienced teachers should use a grading system that fulfills grading criteria and that they agree with philosophically. *Should be prepared to use either norm-referenced grading or criterion-referenced grading. *Choice of grading method should serve the needs of the teacher and the needs of the students. 7-32 The Weighting of Factors *If teacher places more emphasis on certain factors, the factors may have more value in determining the unit grade. *To reflect the importance of factors, weights are assigned to them. *Weights may be used with knowledge and physical performance tests. *If letter grades are assigned for weighted factors, a numerical table for conversion of letter grades should be available. (SEE TABLE 7.12) 7-33 Table 7.11 Use of Weights in Determining Grades for Tennis Weighting Weighting Area ofArea Factor of Factor Grade Points Psycho- 6 Skill Test 1 C+ 6 motor Game Performance 2 B+ 18 Tournament Standing 2 A+ 24 Technique 1 A- 10 Cognitive 2 Knowledge Test 2 A- 20 TOTALS 8 8 78 COMMENTS Grade = 78/8 = 9.75 (A-) A+ = 12 B+ = 9 C+ = 6 D+ = 3 F = 0 A- = 11 B = 8 C- = 5 D = 2 A = 10 B- = 7 C = 4 D- = 1 7-34 Reporting of Final Grades Letter. Grades A, B, C, D, and F most commonly used. Some school systems use + and - with grades. Teacher usually converts numerical grades to letter grades. Numerical. The numerical average is reported. Pass/Fail. Grade indicates only whether student has been successful or unsuccessful in completing course objectives. Descriptors. Words, terms, and phrases are used to describe the student’s performance. 7-35
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