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Behavioral Neurobiology, Week 1 notes

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by: Tmn7rc

Behavioral Neurobiology, Week 1 notes 1080 - 001

Marketplace > University of Virginia > 1080 - 001 > Behavioral Neurobiology Week 1 notes
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These notes include the first full week of notes and in class lectures.
Behavioral Neurobiology
Deforest Mellon
Class Notes
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"Amazing. Wouldn't have passed this test without these notes. Hoping this notetaker will be around for the final!"
Gideon Yundt

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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tmn7rc on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1080 - 001 at University of Virginia taught by Deforest Mellon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views.

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Date Created: 02/02/16
Jan. 25, 2016 – Jan. 31, 2016 Ways to study the behavior of animals [Giants of this subject (significant researchers): Tinbergen, Lorenz, Von Frisch] Observation of natural behavior: Ethology, a term coined by Lorenz, meaning- the study of manner or behavior Pure Observation: e.g, observing animals undisturbed, usually in the field, but also possible in some controlled settings Experimental: e.g, modifying animals’ environments (often done by Von Frisch) Laboratory Observation of behaviors in various tasks: What can we teach animals to do? Maze Learning: rats in radial arm mazes Associative learning (Conditioning): training sea slugs to unusual stimuli Operant Conditioning: reinforcement or punishment (ex: cats learning to escape from cages by lifting/pressing levers to receive reward of food outside of cage) Neuroethology- the examination of neural basis for behavior Can be tested in…. Freely behaving animals (ex: toad, owls) Anesthetized animals (ex: by conducting acute preparations to test animal reflexes) “Reduced” preparations (ex: isolating certain areas of an animal’s body for testing such as the head or the abdomen; or examining a cell of the brain in a test dish by manipulating nerves) Examples from observations in the field Fixed Action Patterns (FAPs)- the innate, repeatable, centrally-orchestrated sequences of motor actions that provide sensory feedback as the result of stereotypic motor sequences or instinctive behaviors Example 1: Egg Retrieval (Lorenz and Tinbergen) Textbook Page 5 Tested grey lag goose’s instinctual behavior. The mother goose would instinctively get up from the nest, if she noticed a white oval-shaped object near the exterior of the nest, and would then roll it with her beak in between her legs until the object similar to an egg returned to the nest. Example 2: Courtship (Beckoning Sexual Selection) of Male Crabs, Textbook Page 5 Male crab has one exceedingly larger claw, and goes through a fixed action pattern of waving that claw high and vigorously in the air for mate selection. *In class we watched a youtube video titled “Sand Fiddler Crab claw waving display Pt.2” FAPs can be triggered by sign stimuli referred to as “releasers” (Tinbergen) A) Gull Chick bill pecking: red spot on parent’s bill leads to regurgitation then feeding of chicks. Tinbergen tested this with wooden bills painted with red, black, blue, white, and no spots. (Textbook Page 8) B) Male Stickelback Aggression: Red venter, only the red ventral areas stimulate aggressive behaviors (Textbook Page 8) C) Chicken Panic, or not: Shape and direction determined if chickens would panic and run. Based off the direction of the shape, there was a stimulation in the escape response/threat in chickens (Textbook Page8) Instinctual landmark learning- the capacity to learn landmarks is instinctual in solitary wasps (beewolves), which they use to find their nest after returning from foraging for prey. Tinbergen was curious to why these Beewolf Wasps would circle around their nest when they were exiting. He figured it was because they were using visual cues. He rearranged the visual landscape by placing pine cones around the nest to see if his hypothesis was true. It was. (Textbook page 7) Examples of Laboratory Tasks Associative Learning: Pavlov’s Dog (Textbook Page 10) Many animals can learn associations between different sensory pathways. For Pavlov’s Dog example, Food= Unconditioned Stimulus and Bell= Conditioned Stimulus, where the Bell became the stimulus that resulted in the dog salivating when it was rung. Operant Conditioning: Animals can learn associations between their own actions and rewards Example – Cat who has a bowl outside of their cage will be use their actions to escape, by pulling a lever, in order to receive the food in the bowl. (Textbook Page 10) Laboratory Training Radial arm maze- Rats quickly learn how to most efficiently check every arm for food using their working memory. This is to assure that each arm is only visited once. In successive tests, reference memory was used by the rats to remember which arms never have food within them. (Textbook Page 12) Neuroethology: Electrical recording from nerve cells in freely behaving animals Recording from optic tectum neurons in the toad as it views visual images (ex: if you throw a pebble, or wormlike/beetle objects across a toad’s visual field, then it will react either predatorily or with an instinctively threat impulse) Using muscle reflexes initiate or modify simple behaviors (Sherrington)… Example: Sherrington tested cats with destroyed cerebral cortexes, where he recorded the muscle tension of the sense organs in muscles and in nerves, as a result of reflex and the table dropping. Electrical recording from nerve cells in highly reduced, physiologically maintained preparations. Some can learn simple tasks (Kandel). Example: the nervous system of aplysia.


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