Week 1 of Notes for Dr. Asghari's Exam 2
Week 1 of Notes for Dr. Asghari's Exam 2 MCB2000
Popular in Microbiology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Microbiology
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsi Rau on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MCB2000 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Asghari in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 186 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Microbiology at University of Florida.
Reviews for Week 1 of Notes for Dr. Asghari's Exam 2
What an unbelievable resource! I probably needed course on how to decipher my own handwriting, but not anymore...
-Hans Farrell PhD
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/02/16
Tuesday, February 2, y MCB2000 Exam 2 Notes Genetics GMO genetically modified organism, manipulating a seed or bacteria to have a desired effect Eukaryotic Cell: more complex, has 2 or more chromosomes, mitochondria & chloroplasts have their own DNA that carries additional genes Prokaryotic Cell: simpler, DNA is THE genetic material Bacteria: has 1 chromosome Extra chromosome is available on DNA Virus: Acellular, have DNA or RNA, only viruses can have one or the other, may have single stranded DNA (always the exception) DNA is a polymer of Nucleic Acid Nucleic Acid is made up of Nucleotides, double stranded, connected together by hydrogen bonds, its helix shape makes it compact Duplicating DNA: relax DNA, separate two strands, make a copy for each one, then have two Nucleotide: sugar, phosphate, nitrogen base (ATCG) All cells have double stranded DNA, including plasmid, chloroplasts, and mitochondria Genes segments of chromosome code for a specific protein called a gene not all DNA are genes, only segments of genes some genes made code for an RNA molecule that is not coded for a protein Virus few hundred genes 1 Tuesday, February 2, y Bacteria couple thousand genes Humans tens of thousands of genes (in Eukaryotes) every gene has a start and an end every gene has to be expressed, this happens in the form of RN every gene copes for one molecule of RNA more complex the organism is, the more genes it has Vertical Gene Transfer: from parent gene directly to daughter gene Horizontal Gene Transfer: in bacteria, conducted through conjugation, transformation, and transduction Conjugation: there is direct contact, DNA is copied from the daughter and the copy of DNA is transferred to the recipient, there is a Vector that carries the DNA the plasmid, diseasecausing genes are passed on through this conjugation, virulence genes, antibiotic resistance genes Transformation: pick up DNA from the environment (naked DNA), no direct contact, DNA comes from other cells that die and cause DNA to be free, this process isn't very common, use this in lab to introduce genes into bacteria can be in the form of plasma Transduction: virus, attack one hostpicks of DN fragment transfer to another host, happens very naturally, carry toxic genes from one bacteria to another, involved in spreading resistant genes, do not kill the host just carry the genes from one host to another Transposons carry genes from one bacteria to another, can jump from chromosome to plasmid or from plasmid to chromosome, help plasmid to carry gene from chromosome also, sometimes called jumping genes 2 Tuesday, February 2, y Replication of DNA Binary Fission: the cell doubling, replication (exact copy of the DNA) Enzymes involved in replication: helicase unwinds the DNA and opens it up, Primate Synthesizes the RNA primer & is required to start replication, DNA polymerase adding bases to the new DNA chain; proofreading the chain for mistakes & removes primercloses gapsrepairing mismatches, Ligase final binding of nicks in DNA during synthesis and repair, Topiosomerases supercoiling and untangling Bacterial DNA circulator: Duplicating DNA: relax DNA, separate two strands, make a copy for each one, then have two 3 Prime side of strand, and 5 prime side of strand, the replication always goes from 5 to 3, DNA polymerase always synthesizes in one way Replication always starts at one point ORI, it is Bidirectional it goes both ways, goes from 53 direction Replication is semiconservative (one strand is old from the parent cell, one strand is new) the two strands are complimentary, G —> C, C —> G (3 hydrogen bonds), A —> T, T —> A (2 hydrogen bonds), two strands are antiparallel (53, then 35) You can tell one strand from the other by regarding the Antiparallel aspect and the complimentary aspect To start replication you need a Primer, RNA during replication one strand is segments and one strand is in one piece Replication SUMMARIZED: Double stranded, one chromosome, circulator, super coiledcompact molecule, always starts at ORI, moves in both directions, goes 5’—3’ direction, needs a RNA primer to start, semiconservative, the two strands are complimentary, are antiparallel, LIGASE&SIMPLE DIAGRAM OF RE 3 Tuesday, February 2, y Genomic: the study of genes and structures Bioformatic: the science of comparing DNA Transcription from DNA to RNA, read DNA and then make RNA transcription: making copy of DNA in form of RNA has multiple forms, tRNA mRNA rRNA all microbes in protein synthesis segments of DNA that code for RNA segment is called a gene some RNA molecules are made to make protein, some are not mRNA: codes for protein, where info comes from to make a protein, CODON used as a template for making the protein tRNA: help synthesize the protein coded for by mRNA RNA polymerase uses DNA as a template, it then reads the gene, and then synthesizes RNA Translation Protein synthesis/translation, end result is a protein molecules the size and composition of ribosome in human is different from those in bacteria happens at the Ribosome (every cell must have a ribosome) Ribosome is a complex molecule made of proteins plus RNA mRNA transcript reads the mRNA and uses it as a template to 4 Tuesday, February 2, y mRNA carries Codon for Amino Acid, a strand of molecule made of GCUA, every 3 base pair is a Codon Codons are triplets each Codon for a different Amino Acid, different combinations code for different things Ribosome hooks the tRNA and Amino acid together tRNA has a matching codon, an anticodon Initiation: first step of translation, mRNA is sandwiched between two ribosome Elongation: second step of translation, a new amino acids and the polypeptide chain is growing UNDERSTAND CONCEPT OF EACH STEP Termination: Point Mutations Spontaneous Mutations: mistakes naturally made by DNA polymerase, key is to have mistakes fixed Fidelity of Mutation: DNA polymerase will go and correct itself and repair anything that went wrong Frameshift happens halfway through where you either add a base pair or remove a base pair 5
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'