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chap 4 & 5

by: Madison donnan

chap 4 & 5 art 2920

Madison donnan
GPA 2.9
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Ravenna and the Triumph of Orthodoxy Chapters 4 & 5
middle ages art
Michael Duffy
Class Notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison donnan on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to art 2920 at East Carolina University taught by Michael Duffy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see middle ages art in Art History at East Carolina University.

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Date Created: 02/02/16
Ravenna and the Triumph of Orthodoxy Chapters 4 & 5 Byzantine Art before Iconoclasm:  Ravenna is seen as safe haven but later abandoned centuries later but is kept intact today and known as a treasure trove. Located below Venice, inlet town.  Capital moved to Milan to Ravenna (barbarian invaders).  Building project last a century, focused on Sante Croche.  Mausoleum 425 to 450 includes barrel vaults, curved ceilings, arches going back into space, central doves, pendentives (transitions in the roof make it seem like its floating).  Upper walls and arches in ceiling are lower today than those times.  Wall mosaics include two schemes, north south access covered with gold stars, and north west with tendrils.  Animal and apocalyptic symbols plus 4 pairs of apostles, two on one side and two on the other.  Lunettes, the semi circles above the doors. First we see the north arm entrance showing the good armed Shepard. Image of Christ first seen in the catacombs but has a lot more brilliant colors. Interior is gold and blue like royalty. He is seated on a throne with the cross and there is a suggestion of Christ and Christian community in paradise.  Santa Cronche dedicated to Saint Lawrence shown opposite the wall. Lawrence has instruments and there are flames and he is displaying 4 gospels in the particular book. In Latin there are teaching in the dresser area. Ferment above has celestial stars. He is pictured short in proportion.  Baptistery built in the 300’s shows new religion of Christianity was coming out in the open. Initially small humble buildings. They are 8 sided octagonal buildings. Milan’s cathedral 350 had octagon plan. Second half of fourth century with more arch like dome.  Orthodox baptistery is built where bottom is built first and 50 years later the top part is built. Resembles connection (Ravenna) to the Byzantine Empire. The Ravenna on east coast has good trade relations with the customs and ways of Byzantine Empire.  Bishop Orso and then Neon finally completed baptistery wanted it to resemble Saint George church. Inside we see the upper walls which create movement in upper walls and refer to heavenly city.  At the very top we can see the 4 the vacant throne where it prepared for the apocalypse. There is a procession here and there is an active movement going around the circle. Resemble eastern churches. Prophets would be sitting on lower part of the wall. The baptism is at the very top and links together outer circle. John the Baptist is baptizing Christ. We see rule and kingship on large vacant thrones. Arian Babtistry was not as refined as tinitarian but it shows Christ is worshipped but there is no division which is most important in oorthodox. Built by king Theodoric, arian theological point of view meaning no decoration, very small, lacked sophistication, smaller font (surrounding pool). Here figures are flatter lines are more delineated here. Figures are not as assumptious or regal. At the end we can see the vacant throne. Palms separate different symbols, more pagan.  Saint Apollonaire Lenovo page 77, in Ravenna in the 500 by Theodoric the Great was an ostrogothic king, and educated in Constantinople. Sent to North Italy by byzantine emperor by Zino. Defeats the chief Odocar, menacing leader of community, and surrendered in Ravenna. Theodoric’s palace church shows wanting to develop autonomy of the western empire. Very pragmatic ruler, developed agriculture, trained flat lands for crops, and lowered taxes. Palladium dedicated to Christ then Saint Martin then Saint Apollonarisis in Nobo. Masonry technique is from Milan =, hollow tubes in bricks are from North Africa, but brought with them masons trained in these different areas. Favored by eastern emperors, wasn’t converted but he was brought into roman political ways. Lighting and mosaics are from western approach. Lighting from windows are spread out, decoration above and between windows, south has male saints Mary and Christ, on the north wall they have virgin martyrs moved from port to enthroned virgin.  March from left and right going towards Virgin Mary and Christ. Above are apostles looking slow. Alternating scene with conch, semicircular apse, usually above an alter or sacred space. Decorated on a shell.  Calling of Peter, shows peter fishing (tilapia). No drama and more demonstrative  San Batale, most important sister church, eastern octagon. Found by bishop acclysist. Planned in 500 was under bishop victor in 588 but takes half a century. Century mosaic completed in 588 when Maximiatus was archbishop and Ravenna. Very unified church holding everything together as one.  Baldikino is the canopy of stone by the alter. Semi circular niches have small arches under big arches, steeper building proportions where it goes up, and the archades have slender arches with steeper building.  Lunettes of the Chanceellor are on either side of the alter. Able offers a lamb to sacrifice in the scriptures in the first testament. On the left Moses is seen twice either removing sandals by burning bush or tending to flock. Isaiah profit of incarnation is also shown. North side is Abraham who offers meal to three men seating beneath, the right holds the sacrifice of Isaac. Moses receives the law from the hand of god. Profit Jeremiah stands with open scrolls.  Up on the ceiling we see the Lamb of God underlies the hole with the large figures of the evangelists holding the Lamb of God.  550 Bishop Maximiounous found by the ostrogoths, this particular church houses relics of Saint Appolonarious. No sense of spacial recession all lined geometrically. Hand of god descends from the clouds and alpse. 3 lambs witness the transfiguration on Mount Senai.  Archbishop o Revenna the throne chair is fitted to Roman structure and completely covered by Ivory. Four evangelist and john the babtist. Conch shells are seen and hallows.  Agnellus 5 century Ravenna used in widely churches. There is a rhythm in surface from the salms and literagy with lambs, ducks, deer, stags, etc in bible present.  Page 93 illustration of the panel in gold tempera paint. Show the events that transpire to produce the reinstatement of position of icon odules where there is a particular place in a visual image perspective.  Iconoclastic, veneration of the image in an icon violated spiritualism of worshiping, divine presence of god can only be nd revoked in the passages of text in the church. Violates 2 command. Icons resemble pagan idols.  Quinisext council convened in 692 where ruling passed that rd Christ had to be set up. Leo the 3 717 came to power, reclaimed frontiers, restored prosperity to the empire.  Iconoclasm was removed in 1903 Princess regiment ruled under the king, had marched into the basilica and declared iconoclasm was dead portrayed page 93. Icon of triumph of othrodox.


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