PSY 202 Chapter 10: Love and Hate/War and Peace
PSY 202 Chapter 10: Love and Hate/War and Peace PSY 202
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa Statner on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 202 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Rujin, Dr. Laver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Chapter 10: Love and Hate/Psychology of War and Peace Love and Hate: I. Love: The Findings A. Physical Attraction • first thing people look at: ◦ physical features, most attractive picked over common personality traits ◦ body shape female face: large eyes, small nose, high cheek bones, full lips, small chin, large space between eyes and eyebrow, large smile male face: slightly sunken eyes, slightly bushier eyebrows, slimmer lips, broad chin, distance between upper lip and brow is small not the person they settle down with, settle down with slightly feminine face female body: medium-sized breasts, medium-sized waist, medium hips, medium legs—according to studies @ Cal Poly, wanted women skinnier male body: broad shoulders, thin waist, thin hips, thin legs, small tight butt B. Does Absence Make the Heart Grow Fonder? No • absence makes the heart go wander C. Do opposites attract? Personality matters 1. only similar 2. only different 3. both 4. similar personalities attract D. Who is Pickier? • women • men are the first to fall into love, women are the first to fall out of love E. Does Romance Exist? 1. Romantic Ideal: somebody that takes your breath away 2. beauty is in the eye of the beholder 2. Romance at the Marriage Bureau ◦ did you have a strong emotional attraction within the first 2 weeks of meeting? Men: 8%, Women: 5% 3. Romance @ Cal Poly—picky F. Who Make the Best Partner? • similarity is most important rule for relationship happiness • must be similar on factors that are important to you • feeling understood makes that person physically attractive to you 1. Androgyny, Femininity, Masculinity 2. sex role assessment 3. doesn’t matter relationship, dating, marriage—worst person is masculine 4. the best is someone who is feminine, androgynous 2. Loneliness and Social Skills ◦ males of every age are lonelier than their female counterparts ◦ least lonely in US: 65-80 years old ◦ 2nd least lonely: 25-65 years old ◦ lonliest in US: 18-25 years old II. Hate A. Racism, Sexism, Prejudice • Racism/Sexism: don’t need a negative emotion, discriminatory behavior or thought • Prejudice: negative emotion involved, ie: dislike, hatred, discriminatory behavior or thinking B. Nonconscious Ideologies: Apple Pie • unaware C. Examples of non conscious racism, sexism: • sent out equal # of job apps to African Americans and caucasians. The white names get far more positive responses. Same descriptor gets differential treatment • women makes 77 cents to $1 compared to a man, 79.6% white female, 67% black female, 59.8% hispanic female D.Only way to Reduce Racism, Sexism, Prejudice • equal status, cooperative, group contact Psychology of War and Peace I. The Psychology of War and Peace 1. Common instigating causes of war (and of interpersonal aggression) • injustice • threats to security and interests • conflict: perceived incompatibility between goals, values, or beliefs II. Maladaptive responses to conflict in children and adults Marble Study • 10 year olds in urban societies: maladaptive competition, concern about winning not cooperating • children in rural societies that value sharing and cooperation didn’t engage in maladaptive competition • maladaptive competition in Cal Poly students • maladaptive competition in war III. Alternatives to Military action A. economic sanctions B. positive incentives and friendly initiatives C. negotiation: identifying interests and seeking integrative solutions D. Third party involvement: ex. mediation, arbitration, “third side” influence E. nonviolent resistance IV. Militaristic attitude • favoring military actions vs. cooperative actions to deal with international conflict • believing that national security depends more on military strength than cooperation with others “Militaristic—Cooperative” (an attitude dimension) Can a person be both militaristic and cooperative 1 Militaristic attitude relates to: 1 gender (male) 2 political party identification (republican) 3 valuing power and dominance 4 accepting revenge norms 5 imposing values on others 6 closed mindedness 7 low perspective taking 8 low empathic caring 9 low humanitarian goals And is unrelated to intelligence and problem- solving ability V. What if the other is uncooperative? A. Research on conflict “games" B. Cooperative people are subject to abuse C. Best solution—cooperate, then tit for tat VI. Problem-solving approach to conflict—SAGE See conflict as a problem-solving challenge vs. a need for revenge Analyze the conflict Generate alternatives Evaluate alternatives A. Analyze the conflict 3. discover the facts 4. avoid exaggerated enemy perceptions 5. understand the other’s perspective (empathy) 6. understand the causes of the conflict (avoid the fundamental attribution error) 7. clarify your interests (emotional impulses vs. values and long term goals) 8. avoid groupthink (pressures for premature consensus) B. Generate alternatives such as: ◦ economic sanctions ◦ positive incentives and friendly initiatives ◦ negotiation ◦ 3rd party involvement ◦ nonviolent resistance ◦ military actions
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