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PSY 202 Chapter 7: Intelligence

by: Marissa Statner

PSY 202 Chapter 7: Intelligence CHEM 125

Marissa Statner
Cal Poly

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About this Document

notes covered during lecture
General Chemistry for Physical Science and Engineering II
Dr. J Javier Aguilera
Class Notes
psych, Psychology, chapter 7, intelligence
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa Statner on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 125 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. J Javier Aguilera in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry for Physical Science and Engineering II in Chemistry at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.

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Date Created: 02/02/16
Chapter 7: Intelligence I. History A. Development of Intelligence Tests • measuring it for about 100 years 1 1. Francis Galton: brain size 1. wanted to be able to locate intellectuals and encourage them to have children 2. figure out intelligence by measuring head size 3. men have bigger heads than women, so he thought men were more intelligent than women 2. Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon: School Assessment of low ability ◦ unintelligence test for children with low intelligence ability ◦ wanted to take lower ability children out of classroom and separate them and give them help ◦ took average 4 for each class and if consistently and significantly lower, then put in another class ◦ this test does not measure intelligence 3. Wilhelm Stern: Mental Quotient MQ=(MA/CA) x100 MQ=mental quotient MA=mental age CA=chronological age 4. Lewis Terman: Stanford Binet and IQ ◦ used to admit students into gate programs ◦ used to address brain damage ◦ changed mental quotient into intelligence quotient (IQ) ◦ IQ used for immigration ◦ didn’t think immigrants were smart ◦ found one group to be stupid—Jewish ◦ admitted to mistake and apologized for incorrectly using test 5. David Wechsler: Deviation IQ and WAIS ◦ created WAIS with a group of men, more popularly used than Stanford Binet ◦ college students scored higher than 100 ◦ students taking SATs scored higher than college students ◦ IQ—how far you deviate from the average ◦ compare to people in same age group ◦ tests for college admissions—not Wechsler thought tests would keep out racial and ethnic minorities B. Concepts of Intelligence 1 1. Charles Spearman: general and specific ◦ intelligence either general (all subjects) or specific (certain subject)—BOTH 2. Raymond Cattel: Fluid and Crystalized: Use vs. Knowledge ◦ Crystalized : what you already know ◦ Fluid: how you use what you know, younger people better at this ◦ Older people: crystalized, know more information, Younger people: fluid, more processing speed 3. Robert Sternberg: how you use what you know 4. Howard Gardner: 7 Intelligences ◦ testing is most useful in school performance 1. linguistic 2. mathematical 3. musical 4. spatial 5. kinesthetic 6. interpersonal 7. intrapersonal ◦ traditional (2): language, logical ◦ creative (2): bodily kinesthetic, musical ◦ social (2): intrapersonal, intropersonal ◦ other (1): spatial II. Definition of Intelligence A combo of abilities enabling one to: A. learn from experience B. reason or think abstractly C. meet challenges and adapt III. Racial/Ethnic Differences in IQ A. Do differences exist? • other races 15 pts lower B. Are differences environmental, genetic, or both? • cannot test • individual difference=genetics • just because individual differences are influenced by genetics, doesn’t mean it influences racial differences • 100% environmentally caused? 1. Cal Poly ◦ people from farms and ranches scored same as African Americans, etc. 2. Groups in Power ◦ ethnic racial group in power of area will have highest IQ regardless of race 3. Obama Effect ◦ African Americans and caucasian whites took standardized test (like IQ test)—african Americans scored lower ◦ after Obama won—no difference in scores 4. Stereotype threat Discussion Notes: • concept vs. proposition: proposition: 2 or more concepts • prototype: representative sample of a concept • schema: expectations, mental categories, belief ex: concept: birds concept: apples prototype: crow proposition: the apple was red and on the tree


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