Biology 2- BIOL 1362 Week 1 Notes through SAR Clade
Biology 2- BIOL 1362 Week 1 Notes through SAR Clade BIOL 1362
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Clowtis on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1362 at University of Houston taught by CHEEK in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 327 views. For similar materials see Biology 2 in Biology at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Biology 1362- 8:30am TTH SW 102 Doctor Ann Cheek Introduction 01/19/2016 Emergent properties due to organization Amoeba-locomotion Green stuff-photosynthesis Energy required for organization Constant energy is required to maintain organisms energy flow through communities and ecosystems Interaction Genetic Information Evolution How organisms change due to natural selection -Clicker: butterfly(insect)=arthropod Biodiversity Chapters 24-27 Representing relationships among organisms Phylogenetic tree: represents a hypothesis of the evolutionary relationships among organisms Always a hypothesis subject to change if new information is discovered Based on shared characteristics inherited from a common ancestor Reading a phylogenetic tree: Position of branch points indicated earlier or later (left is further back in time, right is more recent) 1. common ancestor of A-G 2. Common ancestor of A-F 3. Common ancestor of A-C 4. Common ancestor of B and C 5. Point indicating unresolved pattern of divergence *You can flip B and C, you are not changing anything about the hypothesis; Unresolved pattern of divergence can be recognized by the 3 lines coming off of the same point The Domains: Eukaryotes, Archae and Bacteria (the two latter being prokaryotes) Biology 1362- 8:30am TTH SW 102 Doctor Ann Cheek- 1/21/2016 A Comparison of the Three Domains of Life- Table 24.2 in textbook (page 471) Clicker question: Which characteristics did the universal ancestor cell likely have? Nucleus: membrane bound organelle so common ancestor wouldn’t have a nucleus, would have ribosomes, RNA polymerase, ATP, glycolysis (doesn’t need mitochondria)NO MEMBRANE BOUND ORGANELLES, not: cell wall made of cellulose, DNA in a chromosome, chloroplasts, or mitochondria Prokaryotic Diversity Archea o Extremophiles- inhabit extreme environments Extremely salty, hot o Methanogens- producers, make methane Use CO to2oxidize H to2CH 4 Live in hydrothermal vents, cow and termite guts Bacteria o 5 Kingdoms: Proteobacteria, Chlamydias, Spirochetes, Cyanobacteria, Gram-positive Bacteria o All have cell wall made of peptidoglycan o Categorized by cell wall morphology Biology 1362- 8:30am TTH SW 102 Doctor Ann Cheek- 1/21/2016 Gram-negative: Lipopolysaccharide membrane surrounding cell wall- protebacteria, chlamydias, spirochetes, cyanobacteria Gram-positive: don’t have the lipopolysaccharide membrane; “naked” cell wall Named after scientist named Gram who observed that a stain couldn’t penetrate the membrane around the Gram-negative bacteria o Cyanobacteria Unicellular Photosynthetic (without chloroplasts) Only prokaryotes with plantlike, oxygen-generating photosynthesis Chloroplasts likely evolved from endosymbiotic cyanobacterium Oldest fossil photoautotroph (first to use light to from molecules and grow) Ancestor of chloroplast Forms soil crust Symbiotic relationship of cyanobacteria and fungus= Lichen (producers) o Proteobacteria Cell wall with an additional membrane (Gram negative) Some autotrophs, chemoautotrophs and photoautotrophs (perform photosynthesis) Rhizobum (genus) spp symbiotic with plants in bean/pea family convert N 2o NH w4ich fertilizes plant Some heterotrophs (get energy from elsewhere) Pathogenic: o Salmonella (food poisoning) o Vibrio (cholera) o Helicobacter pylori (causes stomach ulcers) Nonpathogenic: o Escherichia coli (live in mammalian hindgut=large intestine) 5 Subgroups: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Epsilon (phylogenetic tree on page 472 of textbook) o Chlamydias and Spirochetes Chlamydias- parasites of animal cells (heterotrophs) Chlamydia trachomatis (most common cause of blindness in the world; also nongonococcal urethritis) Spirochetes- some spp free-living (Others)Pathogenic parasites o Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease) Biology 1362- 8:30am TTH SW 102 Doctor Ann Cheek- 1/21/2016 o Treponema pallidum (syphilis) o Gram-positive Bacteria No additional membrane covering cell wall Nonpathogenic: Streptomyces (antibiotic because kills off its competition) o Decomposers in soil o Source of antibiotic Pathogenic o Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) o Clostridium botulinum (botox/botulism) o Various species of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus Clicker- some bacteria can perform photosynthesis Chapter 25- Eukaryotic Diversity pg. 489 4 “Supergroups” of Eukaryotes (between Domain and Kingdom) Divergence pattern from common ancestor actively debated (unresolved) Extant= currently alive (opposite of extinct) Most eukaryotes are single celled -Excavates and SAR Clade= grouped by phenotype-morphology and biochemistry and by genotype Categorize by energy source o Autotrophs= producers Symbionts o Heterotrophs=consumers Predators, parasites,decomposers Excavata: o Feeding groove along one side of cell o Brown algae o Mitochondria that don’t use oxygen o Many are heterotrophs A lot are parasites Giardia intestinalis- intestinal parasite in mammals, transmitted by infected feces (causes diharrea) Trypanosoma- parasite (causes sleeping sickness) in mammals (purple); transmitted by tsetse fly bites SAR Clade o Stramenopiles, Alveolates, and Rhizaria Biology 1362- 8:30am TTH SW 102 Doctor Ann Cheek- 1/21/2016 o Most responsible for photosynthesis in oceans and lakes o Contain a similar photosynthetic plastid- organelle surrounded by multiple membranes (2-4) containing its own DNA o Many live in marine and freshwater plankton o Stramenopiles example- unicellular diatoms 2 part silicon dioxide wall (glass structure) Important photosynthetic producers Diatoms do ~30% of entire earth’s photosynthesis Not all stramenopiles are diatoms o Alveolates: Dinoflagellates (on coral or free-living) Important photosynthetic producers Some are symbiotic with corals Overgrowth of some free-living populations can cause red tide Some free-living marine species are bioluminescent Apicomplexans Not photosynthetic Both sexual and asexual stages Plasmodium- Parasite causes malaria o Lives in mosquitoes and humans Clicker- Which supergroup of eukaryotes is responsible for most of the photosynthesis in oceans and lakes? Answer: SAR Clade Key: Spp= Species plural Blue= words you need to know, usually bolded in the book (descriptions from the book of these words are added to these notes)
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