PSY 202 Chapter 8: Memory
PSY 202 Chapter 8: Memory PSY 202
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa Statner on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 202 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Rujin, Dr. Laver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Chapter 8: Memory I. A Simple Experiment • it’s fairly easy to plant a false memory percent recall... • we do well on the 1st and (maybe the last) 2 items • middle items are poorly recalled • recall seems to rely on items place in a list ◦ serial position II. Serial Position Effect Curve • % correct rises at the beginning an the end of the order in which the words are read A. Recency effect • good recall for items @ end • last items still in awareness, easy to write down • short term memory- synonymous with conscious awareness B. Primacy Effect • good recall for items at the beginning • maintenance rehearsal, visual images, repetition, etc. • long term memory- storage for things we aren’t thinking of C. How Can We Explain These Effects? • transfer: fringe benefit of thinking about things in short term memory (inferred concept) III. Model of Memory • 3 Box Model Info \/ Sensory Memory—> loss of info \/ transfer of info —>Short term memory—> loss of info /\ <— \/ /\ exchange of info Long term memory—> loss of info A. Sensory Memory • iconic memory: a visual store (lasts 1/2 second) • echoic memory: an auditory store (lasts a few seconds) • supports our sense of a continuous experience • most info is lost from sensory memory B. Short Term Memory • typically requires attention • conscious awareness • holds 7+ 2 items • keeping material in awareness • inference from other material • decay? ◦ without rehearsal, material fades in 30 sec C. Long Term Memory • processing info helps transfer it to long term memory • we are not aware of material in long term memory • “remembering” means transferring material back to short term memory • “forgetting” means losing the ability to bring back info • Clive Wearing ◦damage to hippocampus (cannot transfer from short term memory to long term) and frontal lobe (emotional issues, no control) ◦only sees what is right in front of him ▪no info absorbed ◦moment to moment consciousness ◦can still draw info from long term memory IV. Other Ways to Look at Memory A. Depth of Processing •type of mental activity used influences strength of memory •study by Craik & Tulving (1975) ◦participants saw list of words one at a time ▪ is word in capital letters? visual-18% recall ▪ does word rhyme with date? sound-78% recall ▪ is word type of fish? categorical- 93% recall ▪ make sense in the sentence, “she met a in the street” meaning-96% recall B. Encoding Specificity • a demonstration (days of week- yes, days of week alphabetically- no) • how easily info is remembered depends (in part) on how it was formed • from a study by Godden & Baddeley (1975) ◦ scuba divers study list of 35 words ▪ study on deck or dive, recall on deck or dive ▪ dry study-dry recall: 13.5 words ▪ wet study-wet recall: 11.4 words ▪ dry study-wet recall: 8.6 words ▪ wet study-dry recall: 8.4 words • comparable learning/testing context boosts memory
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