NTRI Chapter 9 Notes
NTRI Chapter 9 Notes NTRI 2000-001
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abby Evans on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTRI 2000-001 at Auburn University taught by Ramesh Jeganathan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see nutrition and health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
NTRI 2000 Chapter 9: Water and Minerals ***Women need 9 cups of water per day; Men need 13 cups of water per day. Women: 11 cups (fluids, foods, metabolism); Men 15 cups (fluids, foods, metabolism) Water o Acts as solvent o 50-70% of body weight o Muscle contains 73% water Fat contains ~ 20% o Part of the intracellular fluid Fluid within the cells o Part of the extracellular fluid Fluid outside of the cells Functions of Water o Body temperature regulation Water absorbs excess heat Body secretes fluid via perspiration Skin is cooled as perspiration evaporates o Removal of body waste via urine Urine excretion (by-product of protein metab, has nitrogen) Excess protein and sodium excretion Typical urine volume: 1 liter Avoid concentrated urine (less than 500 ml/day) o Joint lubricant, saliva, bile, amniotic fluid Thirst Mechanism o Not reliable!! Thirst mechanism lags behind actual water loss o Concerns for infants, older adults, athletes o Athlete Weigh before and after training session For 1 pound loss, consume 3 cups fluid o Illness (vomiting, diarrhea, fever) Hormonal Regulation o *Antidiuretic Regulation Released by the pituitary gland Forces kidneys to conserve water (reduce urine flow) o *Aldosterone Produced by adrenal glands Responds to drop in blood pressure Signals to the kidney to retain sodium, and in turn, more water Too much Water o Overburden the kidneys o Low blood electrolyte concentrations Hyponatremia o Blurred Vision Minerals o Various functions in the body Minerals function as *cofactors (examples, copper and selenium) Body compounds – iron in RBCs Nerve impulses – Na, K, Ca Growth and Development – Ca, P Water Balance – Na, K, Ca and P Classification of Minerals o Major Minerals Require > 100 mg/day Calcium, Sodium o Trace Minerals (Microminerals) Require < 100 mg/day Iron, zinc Mineral Toxicity o Trace minerals are more toxic o Result of supplementation Toxicity Harmful interactions with other nutrients Presence of contaminants (Example, lead) Look for United States Pharmacopeia (USP) – approved brands Major Minerals o Sodium Dietary source: table salt (NaCl): 40% sodium, 60% chloride Bioaailabiility: 95% absorbed Positive ion in extracellular fluid Excretion regulated by the kidneys Aldosterone: hormone that signals kidneys to retain sodium and water Functions: Fluid balance Conduction of nerve impulses Sodium Deficiency Deficiency is rare Seen with persistant vomiting/diarrhea Escessive perspiration o Losing 2-3% of body weight Endurance athletes – need to consume sport drinks Signs of deficiency o Muscle cramp, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, shock, coma Food Sources of Sodium Most sodium is added by food manufcturers and restraunts Processed foods Milk and dairy products Sodium content listed on the labels Sodium Needs Daily Value is 2400 mg/day Typical intake is 4700 per day Increased sodium intake is associated with hypertension (high blood pressure) Sodium-sensitive individulas should restsrict intake (African americans, diabetics, obese individuals) o If jeff consumes roughly 2 teaspoons (10g) of salt, how much sodium does he get in his diet? o 4 grams (10x40/100) Calcium o Drink 3 cups of milk per day. o Present in all cells of the body o 99% of bones and teeth o Absorption of Calcium Amount in body is dependent on amount absorbed Requires slightly acidic environment and vitamin D Adults: absorb 25% of calcium in food Increase to ~60% during time of need (pregnancy, infancy) Parathyroid hormone enhances calcium absorption o Don’t drink tea with meal. It inhibits the absorption aof calcium o Factors limiting absorption of calcium Hogh factor intake Excess phosphorous Vitamin D deficiency Polyphenols (tannins) in tea Menopause Aging o Blood calcium regulation Blood calcium level can be maintained despite inadequate calcium intake Calcium obtained from bones for blood calcium regulation Sets stage for future bone fractures o Functions of Calcium Bone formation and maintenance Deficiency causes osteoporosis Blood clotting Nerve impulse transmission Muscle contraction Deficiency causes tetany Cell metabolism Activated various enzymes o Calcium needs Daily Value = 1000mg/day Upper level 2500 mg/day : kidney stones o Calcium Supplements Recommended for people who cannot incorporate calcium into their diets o Osteoporosis Calcium deficiency “A pediatric disease with geriatric consequences” Leads to ~1.5 million fractures/year Slender, inactive women who smoke are most at risk o Bone Growth and Mass Determined by gender, race, familial pattern, other genetic factors In women, bone loss begin ~ age 30 Women experience increased bone loss after menopause Developing more bone by early adulthood lowers risk of osteoporosis Osteoporosis Screening: DEXA bone scan o Osteoporosis Prevention Once present there is no way to repair the damage Young Women Meet calcium, vitamin D, other nutrient needs Report irregular menstration promptly; Female athletes, eating disorders – concern Active lifestyle that included weight bearing physical activities After menopause, consider medications Bisphosphonates: Fosama, Boniva Older adults; Track height – loss of 1.5 inches or more Physical activity, strength training, sun exposure, calcium, vitamin D Potassium o Positive in intracellular fluid o 90% absorbed o Functions Fluid balance Nerve impulse transmission o Associated with lowering blood pressure o Low blood potassium Loss of appetite, muscle cramps, confusion, low heart beat o Potassium Sources and Needs Unprocessed foods: fruits, vegetables, milk, grains, meats, dried beans – rich sources Daily value: 3500 mg per day Typical intake is 2000 – 3000 mg/day Food sources: orange juice, bananas, kidney beans, milk o Hypertension Systolic Blood pressure/Diastolic blood pressure Normal BP: less than 120/80 mm Hg Hypertension Why control Blood Pressure? To prevent: o Cardiovascular disease o Kidney Disease o Stroke, decline in brain functions o Poor circulation African Americans most at risk Causes of Hypertension Aging (1 in 2 adults over 65) Family History Atherosclerosis Obesity Elevated Insulin Inactivity Excess Alchohol Sodium and Blood Pressure Blood Pressure increases with sodium intake o DASH – sodium trials: 1.5, 2.4, or 3.3 g/day o Lower the sodium, lower the blood pressure Excess salt leads to fluid retention, which incrases blood volume, which results in hypertension DASH (Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension) diet Diet, Minerals, and Hpertension DASH diet Diet rich in fruits, vegetables (vitamin C) Sodium intake: 3 g or less 2-4 gm of potassium per day lowers blood pressure >1000 mg calcium per day lowers blood pressure o Trace Minerals (Micro Minerals) Iron Iron deficiency- most common worldwide Only nutrient that young women need more than women Found in every cell 18% is absorbed – elimination not easy Heme iron vs Noheme iron o Heme iron found in animal products (e.g. Hemoglobin and myglobin) better absorbed than noheme iron (supplement, grain enrichment, elemental iron) Absorption of iron o Determined by body’s need o Absorbed in an acidic enviorment o Heme and Non-heme together increases iron absorption o Vitamin C enhances non-heme iron absorption (iron supplement) o Hindered by phytic acid, oxalic acid, high fiber, high calcium, polyphenols and zinc supplements Functions of Iron o Hemoglobin in red blood cells Transports oxygen and carbon dioxide o Myglobin in muscle cells Oxygen carrier, Energy production o Part of enzymes Iron deficiency – anemia o Most common form of anemia o Low levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit o Anemia leads to reduction in Production of red blood cells Oxygen carrying capacity Iron Sources and Needs o Animal products, breakfast cereals, bread, dates (milk is a poor source) o RDA is 8mg/day for adult male o RDA is 18 mg/day for female age 19 to 50 o Daily value is 18 mg o Upper level is 45 mg/day Iodide Iodide in foods – fortified salt Functions: o Supports thyroid hormone synthesis o Regulates metabolic rate, growth, development Deficiency: o Thyroid gland enlarges (goiter) due to low intake o Cretinism, stunning of fetal growth and mental development as a result of low iodide in maternal diet Iodide sources and needs: o Iodized salt – ½ tsp. meets RDA o Saltwater fish, seafood, dairy, grains o Sea salt is poor source Iodide lost during processing o RDA and Daily value are 150 mcg/day Only 50 mcg needed to prevent goiter o Average intake exceeds RDA Fluoride Role in prevention of dental caries o Helps tooth enamel resist acid o Inhibits bacterial growth Tea, seafood, seaweed Toothpaste Adequate intake is 3.1-3.8 mg/day for adults Upper level is 10 mg/day for older children and adults Fluoride Toxicity o Limit toothpaste to pea size for children High amounts can weaken teeth o Upper level is 1.3 – 2.2 mg/day for children
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