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CCJ3024 Notes from 2/2/16

by: Haley Kairab

CCJ3024 Notes from 2/2/16 CCJ3024

Haley Kairab
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About this Document

These are the notes from Dr. Krohn's lecture on 2/2/16 (7-8: victimization surveys and self-report studies)
Advanced Principles of Criminology Justice
Dr. Marvin Krohn
Class Notes
criminology, Advanced Principles of Criminal Justice




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Kairab on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ3024 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Marvin Krohn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Advanced Principles of Criminology Justice in Criminology and Criminal Justice at University of Florida.

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Date Created: 02/02/16
Advanced Principles of Criminal Justice notes from 2/2/16 Victimization Surveys • Victimization survey ­ a survey to determine if people have been a victim of a crime  ◦ Advantage as a measurement of crime ­ people will be more  willing to say that they have been the victim of a crime rather  than admitting they committed one   First victimization study • 1965 • Conducted by National Opinion research center • Went to 10,000 households to see if they had ever been victims of a  crime and if they reported it to the police • This study expanded across the country quickly   Victimization studies today • Conducted by the Census Bureau •  In 2006 ­ 64 million were interviewed, but 93 million in suburban areas  (not uniform crime report but research through census)   Purpose • To see how much of crime goes unreported by the victims and why ◦ Why ­ typically because it is a hassle; they are worried the police won't do anything to help; or worried the criminal will do more to you if you report them; embarrassment • More accurate count of the true crime rate ◦  people have less of a reason to lie about being a victim • Police efficiency  ◦ to measure using uniform crime rate look at the crimes cleared by arrest out of all the crimes that police are aware of ◦ However, using victimization surveys you can look at arrests out  of all crimes including those unreported until a victimization  survey that they should know about • Location  ◦ find out where these crimes and victimizations are happening • The nature/characteristics of crime & victim   Problems • The victim's description of offender in limited and unreliable ◦ The victim typically doesn’t get a good look, if they get one at all • Memory of the details     • Victimization studies have shown that crime rate is twice what police  actually know about ◦ Motor vehicle crime is the most likely to be reported ◦ Homicide is not counted because there is no victim left ◦ Least likely is larsony (theft of small things) and assault (they  normally know each other) • Break down by categories of crime    Victimization surveys are good for: 1.Give info on the victims a. 15% of households are victims of crime b. More likely to be victim if: i. Urban resident ii. Male  iii. Younger people  iv. African American v. Victims of violent crime are more likely to be in lower  socioeconomic status c. Most likely to be victim (young, poor black male) is also most  likely to commit serious crime 2.Relationship between victim and offender a. Assaults b. Perpetrators tend to go after people of similar demographic 3.Routine activities of victims a. When/where crimes happen b. Hints to why the crime happens i. Guardianship ­ likelihood of becoming a victim 1. How well you can defend against crime (ex/ locking  doors; or stay out of isolated and dark places, have a  dog) ii. Look at how fitting the target is (greater value to the  offender, easy to take) c. Focuses on individual more than location  4.Check on crime stats (uniform crime reports and self reports) Self-Report Studies Self report studies  • ask people if they have committed a crime • Don't just ask questions about the crime, ex/ demographic info, job info,  family info ◦ The other questions that seem non­related but can help explain  why a crime was committed   History of self­report studies • Porterfield ­ 1943 ◦ Before this, all crime info came from official data ◦ Porterfield thought that social class and delinquent behavior were related  ◦ He looked in 55 juvenile cases that went to court ◦ He went to interview college student and found that almost every  student had committed at least one of the 55 offenses that he look at  • Mean # of males = 17, and females = 6 • None had been involved with the police/court system  because of those crimes   • This was taken to mean that the juvenile justice system treated people of  different backgrounds differently • Led to many studies that showed relationship between social class and  delinquency was misleadingly exaggerated by the official data that was  used   Concerns • Anonymity/confidentiality  ◦ Anonymity ­ you don't know who it is ◦ Confidentiality ­ you know who it is but you can't speak about it • Use this to be able to match it with other data  • Administration of the report ◦ Before it was in interview style which made ^^^ hard ◦ Now its on computer which makes it more valid • Longitudinal design   Sample selection • Short and NYE ­ rural sample • Other studies were in urban areas • Clarke and Wenninger study ­ four areas • Rochester Youth Development Study (RYDS) ­ look at kids that are high risk for crime ◦ Oversampled high crime areas and males   More issues • Items on checklist ◦ Criticism of Short and NYE ­ asked trivial questions   • Most studies give range of behaviors that are more and less serious • Makes a difference in finding ◦ Hindelang Et Al Study ­ official vs. victimization vs. data vs.  self­report ◦ Elliot and Ageton ­ looked at self­report data to study a  relationship between class, race, and delinquent behavior • Follow up questions ◦ Make sure you are getting valid information  ◦ Issue with these: people say no to certain question to avoid  follow up questions ◦ Testing effect ­ people learn how their answers affect the length  of their survey ◦ Thornberry study of NYS effect • How to prevent attrition of the sample ◦ Make sure you can find the person later on after the survey • Overall reliability/validity of the study ◦ Studies on this: • Clark and Wenninger ­ studied college students that filled  out aa self­report check list. Two weeks later they invited  them all back in after recording all of their responses, and  let them know the second time that the study was to test the validity of a lie detector machine. They would hook them  up again and ask the same questions, and they had the  opportunity to change any answers. ■ They measured the amount of times the answer  changed ­ found that 80% told the truth most of the  time • Gold Et Al ­ interview friends and ask about their behavior  and about their own behavior  ■ Most people told the truth in general • Akers Et Al ­ He looked at substances (spit) and varied the  collection of taking the saliva and giving the checklist.  Taking the saliva first expected to be more honest. Giving  checklist first expected to lie more because they didn’t  know about the saliva. ■ Most people told the truth in general • Systematic vs. random bias ◦ Systematic bias is what we need to be concerned about  ◦ If random because it is still a fairly accurate correlation because  you can keep tabs on the normal sense of the truth


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