CCJ3024 Notes from 2/2/16
CCJ3024 Notes from 2/2/16 CCJ3024
Popular in Advanced Principles of Criminology Justice
Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Kairab on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ3024 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Marvin Krohn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Advanced Principles of Criminology Justice in Criminology and Criminal Justice at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Advanced Principles of Criminal Justice notes from 2/2/16 Victimization Surveys • Victimization survey a survey to determine if people have been a victim of a crime ◦ Advantage as a measurement of crime people will be more willing to say that they have been the victim of a crime rather than admitting they committed one First victimization study • 1965 • Conducted by National Opinion research center • Went to 10,000 households to see if they had ever been victims of a crime and if they reported it to the police • This study expanded across the country quickly Victimization studies today • Conducted by the Census Bureau • In 2006 64 million were interviewed, but 93 million in suburban areas (not uniform crime report but research through census) Purpose • To see how much of crime goes unreported by the victims and why ◦ Why typically because it is a hassle; they are worried the police won't do anything to help; or worried the criminal will do more to you if you report them; embarrassment • More accurate count of the true crime rate ◦ people have less of a reason to lie about being a victim • Police efficiency ◦ to measure using uniform crime rate look at the crimes cleared by arrest out of all the crimes that police are aware of ◦ However, using victimization surveys you can look at arrests out of all crimes including those unreported until a victimization survey that they should know about • Location ◦ find out where these crimes and victimizations are happening • The nature/characteristics of crime & victim Problems • The victim's description of offender in limited and unreliable ◦ The victim typically doesn’t get a good look, if they get one at all • Memory of the details • Victimization studies have shown that crime rate is twice what police actually know about ◦ Motor vehicle crime is the most likely to be reported ◦ Homicide is not counted because there is no victim left ◦ Least likely is larsony (theft of small things) and assault (they normally know each other) • Break down by categories of crime Victimization surveys are good for: 1.Give info on the victims a. 15% of households are victims of crime b. More likely to be victim if: i. Urban resident ii. Male iii. Younger people iv. African American v. Victims of violent crime are more likely to be in lower socioeconomic status c. Most likely to be victim (young, poor black male) is also most likely to commit serious crime 2.Relationship between victim and offender a. Assaults b. Perpetrators tend to go after people of similar demographic 3.Routine activities of victims a. When/where crimes happen b. Hints to why the crime happens i. Guardianship likelihood of becoming a victim 1. How well you can defend against crime (ex/ locking doors; or stay out of isolated and dark places, have a dog) ii. Look at how fitting the target is (greater value to the offender, easy to take) c. Focuses on individual more than location 4.Check on crime stats (uniform crime reports and self reports) Self-Report Studies Self report studies • ask people if they have committed a crime • Don't just ask questions about the crime, ex/ demographic info, job info, family info ◦ The other questions that seem nonrelated but can help explain why a crime was committed History of selfreport studies • Porterfield 1943 ◦ Before this, all crime info came from official data ◦ Porterfield thought that social class and delinquent behavior were related ◦ He looked in 55 juvenile cases that went to court ◦ He went to interview college student and found that almost every student had committed at least one of the 55 offenses that he look at • Mean # of males = 17, and females = 6 • None had been involved with the police/court system because of those crimes • This was taken to mean that the juvenile justice system treated people of different backgrounds differently • Led to many studies that showed relationship between social class and delinquency was misleadingly exaggerated by the official data that was used Concerns • Anonymity/confidentiality ◦ Anonymity you don't know who it is ◦ Confidentiality you know who it is but you can't speak about it • Use this to be able to match it with other data • Administration of the report ◦ Before it was in interview style which made ^^^ hard ◦ Now its on computer which makes it more valid • Longitudinal design Sample selection • Short and NYE rural sample • Other studies were in urban areas • Clarke and Wenninger study four areas • Rochester Youth Development Study (RYDS) look at kids that are high risk for crime ◦ Oversampled high crime areas and males More issues • Items on checklist ◦ Criticism of Short and NYE asked trivial questions • Most studies give range of behaviors that are more and less serious • Makes a difference in finding ◦ Hindelang Et Al Study official vs. victimization vs. data vs. selfreport ◦ Elliot and Ageton looked at selfreport data to study a relationship between class, race, and delinquent behavior • Follow up questions ◦ Make sure you are getting valid information ◦ Issue with these: people say no to certain question to avoid follow up questions ◦ Testing effect people learn how their answers affect the length of their survey ◦ Thornberry study of NYS effect • How to prevent attrition of the sample ◦ Make sure you can find the person later on after the survey • Overall reliability/validity of the study ◦ Studies on this: • Clark and Wenninger studied college students that filled out aa selfreport check list. Two weeks later they invited them all back in after recording all of their responses, and let them know the second time that the study was to test the validity of a lie detector machine. They would hook them up again and ask the same questions, and they had the opportunity to change any answers. ■ They measured the amount of times the answer changed found that 80% told the truth most of the time • Gold Et Al interview friends and ask about their behavior and about their own behavior ■ Most people told the truth in general • Akers Et Al He looked at substances (spit) and varied the collection of taking the saliva and giving the checklist. Taking the saliva first expected to be more honest. Giving checklist first expected to lie more because they didn’t know about the saliva. ■ Most people told the truth in general • Systematic vs. random bias ◦ Systematic bias is what we need to be concerned about ◦ If random because it is still a fairly accurate correlation because you can keep tabs on the normal sense of the truth
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