PSY 320 Alcohol Class Notes
PSY 320 Alcohol Class Notes PSY 320
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Daniela Bastardo on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 320 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Marc Gellman in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Drugs & Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
PSY 320 notes 02/16/2016 ▯ Alcohol ▯ Fermentation: - The pod of alcohol from sugars thru the action of yeasts. - Fruit + yeasts = fermentation will begin - Yeasts has a limited tolerance for alcohol (15%) * Beer: - Made by adding barley malt to other cereal grains. - Hops are added with yeast to give beer its distinct flavor. - 3 types of beer: Ale, Lager, light beer Wine: fermented grapes - Has the most diversity in taste. - Wine are in average around 12% alcohol. - Varieties of wines: 5 types Distilled Products: - Distillation Evaporation and condensing of alcohol vapors to produce beverages with alcohol content higher than 15%. - Process discovered in Arabia - Proof? A measure of a beverage’s alcohol content/Twice the % of alcohol by weight/90-proof whiskey is 45% alcohol. - Distilled Spirits GRAIN NEUTRAL SPIRITS: i. Clear, tasteless, nearly pure alcohol (190-proof) produces by distillation. ii. Whiskey: - Distilled of fermented malted barley. - Distilled at a lower proof (160). - Usually aged for at least 2 years. iii. Liqueurs or Cordials: - Alcohol content 20 to 25% - Originally made from brandy mixed with flavorings from herbs, berries, nuts - Now made from flavored, diluted grain neutral spirits Alcohol Use : Early Views Before American Rev. - People drank more alcohol than water. - Drunkenness was viewed as a misused of positive product. After American Rev. - Viewed as the cause of serious problems - Demonize Prohibition - Prohibition laws began in 1851 th - 18 Amendment in 1919 - Outcomes 1. Organized crime became more organized and profitable. 2. Alcohol dependence and alcohol-related deaths declined. - Experiment lasted 13 to 14 years. In 1933 prohibition ended. - Marijuana became popular and polstic topic. - Prohibition repealed by the 21 Amendment in 1933 because of the taxes (major source of revenue), and a huge concerned for disrespect for the prohibition laws (people were getting alcohol even though it was illegal). Regulation and Taxation - Regulation after 1933 - Laws were slowly relaxed until the last dry state, Mississippi, became wet in 1966 - In the 1970’s drinking ages were lowered to 18-19 in 30 states, but then raised to 21 because of concerns related to traffic accidents increased. - Taxation Federal and state taxes and licensing fees = about half the price of an alcoholic beverage. Types of Drinking and Number of Drinks Consumed Standard drink - .5 oz of pure alcohol - That way we can classified drinkers (heavy drinkers, light/moderate drinkers, etc) - Men and women metabolize alcohol differently. - Light Drinking: < than 2 drinks per day for men, and <than 1 drink per day for women - Moderate Drinking: 2 per day for men, and 1 drink per day for women - Heavy Drinkers: consuming most of the alcohol in US - Binge Drinking: drinking at least five drinks in one seating - Extreme Drinking: 2 or 3 times the # of drinks considered as binge drinking Who Drinks and Why? - Consumption patterns are influenced by cultural factors - Trends in U.S. about 1/3 od Americans abstain, 3 drinks per day. U.S. Alcohol consumption - Stress index - Drinking norms - Gender differences: Males more likely to drink than females, and more likely to drink more - Drinking among college students: College students drink more than nonstudent peers Drinking and College Students - College years associated with alcohol use - 10% increase in drinking among 18-22 yo. Social Consequences of Alcohol Used on Campues - 75% of men and 55% of women involved in acquaintance rape were under the influence of alcohol - 80% of campus vandalism involved alcohol Academic Consequences - 40% of poor academic performance at college has been linked to alcohol - 7% of first year dropouts are related to alcohol - ALCOHOL INTAKE IS INVERSELY RELATED TO GPA Attitudes and Perceptions Toward Alcohol Use on Campus - 95% of students think that the average student drinks at least weekly - 30% of students indicated they would prefer not to drink at parties ▯ ▯ ▯
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