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Chapter 2: Evolution, Genetics, and Experience

by: Hayley Banks

Chapter 2: Evolution, Genetics, and Experience Pysch 378

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Hayley Banks

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Brain and Behavior
Jeff Willner
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayley Banks on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Pysch 378 at Radford University taught by Jeff Willner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Brain and Behavior in Psychlogy at Radford University.

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Date Created: 02/02/16
Chapter 2: Evolution, Genetics, and Experience  Two basic views of the relation between the brain and mind o Dualism: mind and brain are two fundamentally different things  Brain is a physical substance, the mind is a non-material thing o Monism: brain and mind are the same thing  Mind is a quality of the physical brain o Prosopagnosia: deficit in face recognition  Agnosia: without knowledge  Particular part of the Brain: Processing system o Reductionism: idea of understand/explain phenomena of a high level analysis and low level analysis  Emergent properties: Mind emerges of interactions among different parts of the brain  Wiring diagram (circuit)  Same bits and pieces but wired differently  Spilt brain = spilt mind? o Corpus callosum: bundle of fiber that connects both hemispheres in the brain o Lobotomy procedure: disconnects/ destroys the fiber that connects both hemispheres in the brain o With this procedure, it can be shown that the right and left hemispheres can operate independently shown in test conditions.  For example, in this diagram, it shows a patient being tested who have had the spilt brain operation. As you can see, when the patient sees the screen, on the left key, on the right ring, the left hemisphere responds to ring by speaking; the right hemisphere responds to the key by picking it up with his/her left hand.  Basically to sum this up, the left hemisphere responds whatever is shown on the right by 2 speaking while the right hemisphere responds to the left by writing what he sees or touches.  Monism is more common for scientist  The mind exist because we have the brain  Descartes (1600)  His philosophy was gave one part of the universe to science and the other part to the church  Physical matter which behaves according to the laws of nature and is this a suitable object of scientific investigations  Human mind (soul, self, or spirit) which lacks physical substance, controls human behavior, obeys no natural laws, and is thus the appropriate purview of the Church  Gallup  Research on self-awareness in chimpanzees  The point of this case is that even nonhumans, which are assumed to have no mind, are capable of considerable psychological complexity in this case self-awareness  Ask whether or not you could recognize yourself in the mirror  In chimpanzees, at first they treated the mirror as another chimpanzee, in time began to see themselves 3  Gallup put the chimpanzees under anesthesia, he put red food dye on the chimpanzee forehead ( a stripe)  How would the chimpanzee react after waking up?  Once woken up, the chimpanzee looked in the mirror, looked closer, and tried to lick off the food dye  Therefore he discovered they develop self awareness over time  Localization of Function  Approach  Each brain tissue carries out one thing  All bits of the brain are interchangeable and functions can change  Gall, Spurzheim and phrenology (early 1800s)  Correlated surface features of the skull with psychological and mental disorders  Read the bumps of people skulls  Gall discovered corpus callosum  Believed state of the skull reflected the brain  4  Localization of language (1830-1860)  Marc Dax and Ernest Auburtin  Believed that language was in the Left Hemisphere  Broca  Compelling case; language deficits due to damaged area in left hemisphere 5  Broca’s Area: deals with nouns and verbs, have a hard time getting the word out  Wernicke’s Area: fluent in words, really have a hard time understanding language  Truth of the matter: damage to different parts of the brain damage different language functions  Lashley and equpotentiality  Studied where the brain held memory  Equpotentiality: all parts of the brain hold memory functions  Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace  Darwin  Idea of evolution; characteristics of species can change over time  Natural Selection: heritable traits associated with high rates of survival and reproduction  Principles of variation  Organisms vary in their characteristics  Most of the time it in inherited  Principles of selection 6  Number of organisms born is greater than number who survived and reproduce  Fitness: How many offspring are left in the next generation  Studying animals is important because  Animal brains are more simple than human brains  The number of neurons are much lower with animals  Wiring diagram is not as complex  Provide a context for a better understanding ourselves  Genetics  Darwin: didn’t know what it was, but something was being passed on to parent to child  Ontogeny: development of an individual  Mendel: Studied inheritance of traits in pea plants  Dichotomous traits: traits that only have two outcomes  True bleeding lines: bleeding lines in which interbred members always produce offspring with the same trait  Dominant trait: trait that is expressed; appeared in all of the first generations  Recessive trait: expressed when there is a true heterozygous gene; appeared in second generation  Homozygous: the genes you form are the same  Heterozygous: different genes  Phenotype: traits that it can pass on to its offspring through genetic material are referred to as its Genotype  Chromosome  Each chromosome holds thousands of genes 7  They come in matched pairs  Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes   The labeled numbers are autosomes  The X and Y are sex chromosomes  Molecule of DNA is a chromosome  Four nucleotide bases  Adenine (A) binds to Thymine (T)  Guanine (G) binds to Cytosine (C)  The four bases holds the chromosomes together 8   Protein  Sequence of amino acids  Play an important role for making structure components for cells  Trigger/Control chemical reactions  Structural genes  Specify the sequence of amino acids that are needed to build a protein  Enhancer genes  Control the activity of structural genes  Can turn on or off by chemical signals  Regulate the expression of the structural genes  Two stages of making proteins  Transcription: rewrite the DNA as a messenger of RNA  Translation: travels to the ribosome where as then the ribosome reads bases in sets of three  Each set of three bases is called a Codon 9  Basically a tag for each amino acid    Epigenetics  Is the study of all mechanisms of inheritance other than the genetic code and its expression  Environmental influences have long term effects on genes  Histone remolding: is the reaction that occurs when histones (proteins that are around the DNA which is coiled) change their shape where it can decrease or increase the expression of genes 10  DNA methylation: is the reaction that occurs when a methyl group attaches to a DNA molecule  11


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