Anaerobic Glycolysis Notes
Anaerobic Glycolysis Notes 3650
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Apollo12 on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3650 at University of Georgia taught by Brandenberger in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Exercise Physiology in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Anaerobic Glycolysis Starts with carbohydrates (glucose or glycogen), eventually will convert to pyruvate or lactate. Food -> mouth, small intestine, liver, blood, muscle glycogen. Intestinal Absorption (small intestine) 3 Steps of Anaerobic Glycolysis: o Phosphorylation of glucose by ATP produces an activated molecule. o Rearrangement, followed by a second phosphorylation by ATP, gives fructose-1, 6- bisphosphate. o The 6-carbon molecule is split into two 3-carbon G3P molecules. o Oxidation, followed by phosphorylation, produces 2 NADH molecules and 2 high-energy BPG molecules. o Removal of 2 energized phosphate groups by 2 ADP molecules produces 2 ATP molecules. o Pyruvate is the end product of glycolysis. If oxygen is available, pyruvate enters the mitochondria for further breakdown. Rate Limiting Enzyme: o Substance 1 (enzyme A rate limiting) o Substance 2 (enzyme b) o Substance 3 (enzyme c) o Substance 4 (enzyme d) o Product Oxidative-Reduction Reactions: o Pyruvic Acid -----(LDH)-- Lactic Acid o NAD+ (oxidized state) o NADH (reduced state) o FAD (oxidized state) o FADH2 (reduced state) Metabolic Acidosis: o GLU GLY LA [ Lactate] pH Effect of Lactate and H+ ion on the Actomyosin Complex o Reduces the force the muscle is going to make. Anaerobic Glycolytic System: o 18 chemical steps/reactions, 7 are repeated. o 12 chemical compounds, 11 enzymes. o Rate-limiting enzyme is Phosphofructokinase (PFK). o Fast, not as fast as CrP system. o 2 ATP’s via Glucose, 3 ATP’s via Glycogen. o Anaerobic o ~ 1 – 2-minute duration. o Fatigue associate with pH (Metabolic Acidosis) o Predominant energy system in high intensity exercise (ex: sustained, repeated sprints). What Happens to Lactate? Oxidation of Lactate by the Liver – Krebs Cycle Oxidation of Lactate by Muscle – Krebs Cycle o What type of muscle fibers are more aerobic? Better able to oxidize lactate? The Lactate Shuttle – Shuttled from fast twitch fiber 2 Gluconeogenesis from Lactate (“Cori Cycle”) – taking lactate and making new glucose out of it. o What else can the body do with lactate? Produce more energy Lactate Accumulation in Blood Concentration in Blood o Lactate Production – Anaerobic Glycolysis o Lactate Removal – Uptake/oxidation by heart, liver, kidneys, etc. Lactate Threshold Lactate Threshold and Distance Running Performance: o Treadmill Time Trial – 10 Km, half marathon o Measurements – Time, VO2, HR, Blood samples. Mechanisms of the Lactate Threshold: o Lactate Threshold: Low muscle oxygen Accelerated glycolysis Recruitment of fast-twitch fibers Reduced rate of lactate removal Lactate Removal – Recovery Anaerobic Glycolysis – Effect of Age, Gender Manipulation of Anaerobic Glycolysis: o High Intensity exercise results in an increase in muscle lactate concentration. o Lactic acidosis results in a decrease in muscle pH. o Decreased muscle pH results in a decrease in muscle force production and fatigue. 3 o Can force production be enhanced, or fatigue delayed if the acidosis can be reduced or “buffered”? Objectives and Terms needed to know: o Outline characteristics of the Anaerobic-Glycolytic energy system o Define and Identify Rate-limiting enzymes o Explain the concept of oxidation-reduction reactions o Explain the process of lactate production, and the relationship between lactic acidosis and muscle fatigue. o Explain the process of lactate removal and oxidation, and the concept of the “Lactate Shuttle”. o Explain the process of lactate accumulation in blood, and the concept and mechanisms of the “Lactate Threshold”. o Explain manipulation of the Anaerobic Glycolytic system by “Bicarbonate Loading”. 4
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