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Ch. 6 notes

by: Jamila Ruffin

Ch. 6 notes GEO 101

Jamila Ruffin
GPA 3.5

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Ch. 6 notes
The Dynamic Earth
Laura Whitaker
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jamila Ruffin on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Laura Whitaker in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.


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Date Created: 02/02/16
Geo. Ch. 6  Sedimentary rocks­ rocks formed near or at the surface of Earth by cementing together  loose grained that have been produced by: 1. Physical or chemical weathering of pre­existing rocks 2. Precipitation of minerals from water 3. Growth of masses of shell­producing organisms   What is weathering? The process of forming sediment  Also, the physical breakdown and chemical alteration of rock at Earth’s surface  Parent material: rock being weathered  Types of weathering:  Physical: without altering the chemical composition of the rocks  Chemical: chemical reactions occur that change he composition of the rock  Physical Weathering is the breaking of rocks into smaller pieces   How does this happen?  Frost wedging­ expansion of water in cracks by freezing, wedging the rock apart  Unloading­ rocks expand and fracture in large sheet­like layers  Thermal expansion and contraction­ heating/cooling of a rock’s surface  Biological activity­ cracking and expansion of rocks  Chemical Weathering is when air and water chemically react with rock to alter its  composition and mineral content. Includes dissolution, hydrolysis, and oxidation  Dissolution­ the dissociation of a mineral into its constituent ions as it dissolves in water  Hydrolysis­ water reacts with a mineral to form a new mineral with water as a part of the  crystal structure  Oxidation­ the chemical reaction of a mineral with molecular oxygen  Factors affecting Rates of Weathering: 1. Surface area­ fractures in rock 2. Rock composition­ calcite dissolves in weekly acidic solutions  3. Climate­ chemical weathering most effective in warm, moist climates  Greater surface area= faster weathering because more of the rock is exposed   What happens with the rocks that have been weathered? 1. Stay at surface, evolve and change into soils 2. Get buried and change into sedimentary rocks   Soil­ a combination of rock or sediment that has been modified by physical/chemical  weathering; AND has reacted with organic matter from plants and animals remains and  forms humus *Humus is the most important substrate in soil that supports the growth of plants  Sedimentary Rocks­ when weathered material becomes stuck together, the material is  laid out into layers and buried  Five steps in forming sedimentary rocks: 1. Weathering­physical breakdown and chemical alteration of rock at Earth’s surface 2. Erosion­ soil and rock are removed from earth’s surface by wind, water flow, ice 3. Transportation 4. Deposition 5. Lithification­ the deposited material compacts into and entity  Four groups sedimentary rocks based on their origin: 1. Clastic sedimentary rocks *ex­ sandstone 2. Biochemical sedimentary rocks *ex­chert 3. Organic sedimentary rocks *ex­limestone  4. Chemical sedimentary rocks  Sediment structures are the places where the sediments/rocks were transported to and laid into layers *Examples­ Bedding planes, cross­bedding, ripple marks, and mud cracks Definitions: 1. Bed­ a single layer of sediment with a  recognizable top and bottom 2. Bedding plane­ the boundary between two beds 3. Strata­ several beds together 4. Stratification­ the overall arrangement of sediment into a sequence of beds 5. Stratigraphic formation­ sequence of strata that is distinctive enough to be traced  across a large area 6. Geologic map­ shows distributions of formations


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