History 202 February 1
History 202 February 1 Hist 202-07
Popular in United States History since 1865
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Wenzel on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 202-07 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Roger Hall in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see United States History since 1865 in History at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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History 202 Notes February 1, 2016 Continuing Lecture Example type of question asked. Prohibition legislate human behavior; linked with moral and economic issues. Failed attempt to legislate because more people wanted to continue to drink. A. Surge in popularity for fundamental religion; people looking for certainty in a time of new changing society (throwback to the past) a. Aimee Semple McPherson known for elaborate and flashy shows; message was very traditional, fundamental Christianity b. Billy Sunday: Fiery traditional persons B. Creationism (faith) vs. Evolution (science) a. 1925 Scopes “Monkey Trial” : Trying to teach evolution in school i. William Jennings Bryan ii. Creationists side win the case; the faith carries over science C. American Westerns not social criticisms were most popular genre of novels a. A Farewell to Arms, The Great Gatsby, The Sun Also Rises D. Boy Scouts, boxing and Tarzan all offered Americans traditional values a. Learn selfreliance and rugged individualism (be prepared) i. Large Christian, traditional background; Johnny Weissmuller (Tarzan can’t get more functional than that! Good at taking care of himself) ii. John Wayne (cowboy) solved problems with violence E. Babe Ruth earns $80,000 a year to hit baseballs over a wall a. What did he symbolize to Americans? He symbolized difference and he broke the color barrier in sports F. Charles Lindbergh (Example of the Roaring blending with the Nervous) a. First solo flight across the Atlantic, 1927 i. Took a new American invention and crossed a frontier, while being selfreliant ii. The 67th person to fly across the Atlantic 1. Famous because he did it BY HIMSELF iii. Ticker tape parade for Lindbergh, NYC 1927 G. The 1920s in summation: a. Cultural tension between new ideas, things and old views, practices b. Americans liked the “roaring” because of convenience, excitement and fun they added to life c. They admired wealth and aspired to make money, particularly easy money d. At the same time, i. Americans were nervous about the significant changes occurring in society and culture ii. They sought to hold onto what was traditional, familiar, and reassuring History Lecture 202 2/1/16 The Coming of the Great Depression and Herbert Hoover’s Response 19291933 Why was it called the Great Depression? Depth and breadth; it affected a lot of people and lasted a long time A. Herbert Hoover a classic “self made man” a. Hoover was born, West Branch Iowa, in 1874 b. Grew up poor c. Orphan at 9 i. Through hard work and self reliance he was worth $4 million in 1914 ii. Came out to California and was in the first graduating class at Stanford; 1890s he continued to work during the summer with professors iii. Devotes next decade and a half to helping people; humble, self effacing, doesn’t call attention to himself iv. Organized very complicated relief systems and saved thousands of lives; “This is a Hoover house” d. 1928, widely popular e. Hoover was the “Great Engineer”. “Ideal” combination of business manager + humanitarian + community leader f. Decisive 1928 victory: 58% popular vote yet 8 months later things will turn bad B. 1929: United States a. World’s Wealthiest nation: i. Per capita income (total wages/total workers) ii. Gross domestic product (total value of goods, services, etc) 1929: $104 billion (2015: $18.1 trillion) iii. Stock Market: Record highs for straight 8 years iv. Unemployment: averaged about 2% per year through 1920s (IF you just look at the percentage you ignore other potential evidence of a potential downturn) v. YET: Worst depression in history was about to begi b. In 1926 sales peaked and began to decline for the rest of the 20’s Housing Automobiles Steel Durable Goods Textiles c. Indication? i. Between 19201929 Wages rose 23% over the decade Prices declined 3% over the decade Production rose 55% over the decade a. What does that tell you? Companies are good at producing stuff. Cut prices, pay workers more to keep up with the production not good economics in the long run C. Origins of the Great Depression (19291943) a. Concentration of wealth (too many had too little) ex. Wealthiest 24,000 families = bottom 11 million americans b. Overproduction: sales propped up by too much credit/debt c. No economic “safety net” (no federal unemployment, bank insurance, or retirement system. 1930: No food stamps or public medical system) d. Greed (stock market driven by anticipation of “easy money”) e. Irresponsible leadership (business and governmentboth ignored warning signs) f. National self delusion (“New Era” of Permanent Prosperity”) g. Fear (replaced greed)(ripple effectone downturn creates another) i. Last four are emotions/responses people have D. Example of decline a. 1929: $24.76 average weekly wages, manufacturing b. 1933: $16.65 average weekly wages, manufacturing i. (33% decrease) wages don’t return to 1929 levels until 1940 c. 1929: $87 billion stock market d. 1933: $18 billion stock market (80% decrease) e. World trade declines by 2/3rds between 19291933 PLUMMETS f. The United States Business Cycle, 18901940; completely plummets in 1930 way below zero; Unemployment SKYROCKETS g. 1929: 2.5% unemployment h. 1933: 25% unemployment i. 14 million jobless (which meant 40 million were without an income= ⅓ of 123 million population) ii. Millions who still worked saw wage and hour cuts; EX. 1933: Toledo, Ohio unemployment 80% (city of 320,000) iii. College attendance goes down; divorces down (costs money); abandonment goes up; crime goes up; prices go down i. Gross Domestic Product dropped from $103 billion to $55 billion. (26.7%) E. 1929: 80% of Americansno savings a. 19301932: 4,300 banks collapse (¼ total) b. Ex. Bank of the US, failed 1930 i. 400,000 accounts $400 average balance; 8,000 people lined up last day. Most lost everything c. 1932: only ¼ of unemployed received any type of state relief. Ex. California, state relief paid $4.50 a month; most states offered nothing or offered to very few people F. POINT: In each year of Hoover’s administration the economy was statistically worse than the last. People grew unhappy. a. Hoover appeared outoftouch with daily struggles of million of Americans. G. 1924: World War Adjusted Compensation Act “Bonus” or “Bonus Marches” a. President Calvin Coolidge vetoed a bill granting additional compensation to WWI veterans saying, “(patriotism) bought and paid for is not patriotism”. Congress overrode the veto and established World War Adjusted Compensation Act. Veterans received $1.25 each day oversea (up to $625). They were paid in certificates that matured in 20 years. b. 1932: In the 4th year of depression, 17,000 jobless veterans called on Congress to give them the money early. For the 1st time, protesters marched on Washington and occupied parts of the National Mall i. The Senate turned them down (congress sort of agrees); Hoover was silent ii. The Attorney General ordered police and troops to remove the veterans from their camps 1. Two were shot and killed, both buried at Arlington National Cemetery H. 1932: Hoover was deeply unpopular and on verge of overwhelming political defeat. But he didn’t see it. a. He cared about recovery, but he clung to “selfreliance” i. Hoover’s 1932 margin of defeat (17.8%) was the largest ever for an incumbent president. b. Replaced by FDR; most influential president in the 20th century History 202 Lecture2/1/16 and 2/3/16 (cont.) Life in the Great Depression ? Hard times are not evenly spread among people or places ? Bank Run: The rush to withdraw money out of panic, fear, apprehension ? Detroit: 1933: 60% unemployment (50,000 jobless) ? City gave permits to sell fruit to 600 people (now what’s that going to do?) ? Who is to blame for their situation? Who is responsible to help their situation? ? Government? Banks? Investment firms? Markets? Business leaders? Corporations? Themselves? ? People walking around as ads for themselves, trying to find a job ■ Seek work (LA) or give up? ■ Protest or Despair? ? U.S. Suicide rate per 100,000 ? 1929: 14 ? 1936: 17 *higher than it is today* ? 2010: 12.0 ? 82 Breadlines in New York City fed 85,000 daily, 19311932 ? Soup kitchen type things feeding a lot of people off of a small amount of money. How long can one sustain that? ? Al Capone opened soup kitchen in Chicago ? Waiting for a job (Los Angeles) Getting the message; sign that says “Jobless Men Keep Going” ? Prices go way down but many people still can’t afford stuff which is just as bad for sellers because people can’t buy their stuff so they won’t make money ? “Hooverville”: shanty towns or communities built by homeless people during the Great Depression ? Dorthea Lange photographer and American journalist that documented the Depressionera ? Florence Thompsonfamous picture of her and her kids that represented the hardships during the depression ? She was the face of the depression even though there were thousands of others living in the same conditions as her ? Never got any money for the picture that was nationally seen of her