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IR 350/HI 334

by: Maritt Nowak

IR 350/HI 334 IR 350, HI 334

Maritt Nowak
GPA 3.47

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About this Document

From Containment to Confrontation The Formation of an Atlantic Security System Insecurity on the Home Front, the Korean War, and the Transformation of NATO The Issue of West German Rearmament T...
History of International Relations 1945-Present
William Keylor
Class Notes
international relations, history, The Cold War, military history, Soviet Union, US History, NATO, European History
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maritt Nowak on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to IR 350, HI 334 at Boston University taught by William Keylor in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see History of International Relations 1945-Present in International Studies at Boston University.


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Date Created: 02/02/16
IR 350/HI 334  February 2, 2016 From Containment to Confrontation I. The Formation of an Atlantic Security System II. Insecurity on the Home Front, the Korean War, and the Transformation of NATO III. The Issue of West German Rearmament IV. The “New Look” in United States Defense Policy: Brinkmanship and Massive Retaliation V. The Nuclear Arms Race in the Fifties The Organization of European Defense ­ 1947: Dunkirk Treaty (France & Great Britain) ­ March 1948: Brussels Treaty (France, Great Britain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg) ­ March 1948: The Vandenberg Resolution (U.S. supports non­communist Europe  collaborating to defend itself) ­ 1948­49: Brussels Pact powers open negotiations with the U.S. (European nations not strong  enough) and Canada, later invite Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway, and Portugal to join Formation of an Atlantic Security System ­ April 4, 1949 ­ U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson Insecurity on the “Home Front” The Stalinist Purges in Eastern Europe ­ 1948­1952 ­ Czech Communist leader Rudolf Slansky accused of “Titoist” activities (serving American  imperialism) ­ November 1952: trial, execution a month later (with 10 others) ­ Wladislaw Gomulka of Poland U.S. Plan to Control Atomic Energy ­ General Leslie Groves and David Lilienthal ­ Bernard Baruch ­ U.S. will transfer nuclear stockpile of nuclear weapons (small) to international body ­ no one, including the U.S., will develop new nuclear weapons ­ Russians reject the plan, USSR doesn’t trust the UN, the U.S. controls the UN (3/5 security  council, most of the general assembly) and they are developing their own nuclear weapons The U.S. Begins Nuclear Testing ­ Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands (how the swimsuit got its name) ­ July 1, 1946 ­ tested on unmanned naval ships Soviet Atomic Bomb Test ­ August 29, 1949 ­ Physicist Igor Kurchatov China “Lost” to Communism ­ October 1, 1949 ­ Mao Zedong ­ People’s Republic of China ­ Beijing’s Tiananmen Square Accusations of Subversion & Espionage ­ 1948­50 ­ the accuser: former Communist Whittaker Chambers ­ the accused: former State Department official Alger Hiss The War Against “Un­American Activities” ­ former Communist Elizabeth Bentley ­ House Un­American Activities Committee (HUAC) ­ Richard Nixon is a committee member ­ *in the 1930s, Communists fought racism and fascism, that’s why people joined The First Spy Case ­  January 15, 1950 ­  Jury finds Alger Hiss guilty of perjury to a congressional committee in 1948 ­  convicted and imprisoned in 1950 “Subversion” of the American Mind ­ The “Hollywood Ten” ­ 1948 ­ congress citations Klaus Fuchs ­ accused February 1950 ­ confessed and convicted in March ­ Manhattan project member ­ German emigre ­ passed blueprints of “Fat Man” to the Soviets McCarthy Broadens the Attack ­ February 9, 1950 ­ Wheeling, West Virginia ­ Republican Women’s Club ­ 205 members of American Communist Party in the U.S. State Department and are passing  top secret documents to the USSR ­ Secretary of State Acheson is “a pompous diplomat in striped pants” ­ assistant Roy Cohn The Administration Debates How to Cope with the Soviet Threat ­ January 30, 1950 ­ Secretary of State ­ Secretary of Defense The Genesis of NSC­68 ­ Spring 1950 ­ analysis and recommendations for the President ­ TOP SECRET ­ USSR could launch surprise atomic attack ­ US has to build up military/defense capabilities ­ military readiness to deter Soviet aggression as long as necessary ­ protection against sabotage, subversion, and espionage ­ maximize economic potential ­ reserves for war ­ keep the public informed and ready for security threats ­ submission to President Truman: April 14, 1950 ­ EXPENSIVE, how to justify? The Cold War Turns Hot in Korea ­ June 25, 1950 ­ communist North Korean People’s Army invades South Korea ­ UNSC calls for end ­ UN asks for aid to Republic of Korea ­ U.S. combat forces under General Douglas MacArthur intervene Korean War and U.S. Rearmament ­ develop the hydrogen bomb ­ forget international control of nuclear weapons ­ increase military forces ­ containment must be more active ­ form alliances with other countries Korean War and Evolution of NATO ­ 1950­51 ­ Integrated Command established (not a bunch of separate armies) ­ American General at its head ­ 2 U.S. combat divisions in Europe ­ Dean Acheson *connection between Korea and Germany? *is the Korean War a diversion? The U.S. Takes Charge of the Alliance ­ General Eisenhower ­ Supreme Allied Commander in Europe (SACEUR) Ike Returns to France ­  July 1951 ­  President of France Vincent Auriol ­  Louveciennes The Issue of West German Rearmament ­  If the war begins, it will definitely go through West Germany, who must be able to defend  themselves ­  pushback from the French The French Scheme for a European Army ­ Paris, May 27, 1952 ­ E.D.C.: European Defense Community ­ Pleven Plan: EDC under Nato instead of armed Germany ­ Konrad Adenauer agrees to expand German sovereignty  The End of the EDC ­ Paris, August 30, 1954 ­ French National Assembly ­ rejection of EDC treaty ­ causes NATO crisis A Compromise is Reached ­ Paris, October 23, 1954 ­ modification of the Brussels Treaty ­ West Germany can rearm ­ West Germany joins NATO (May 1955)     Restriction  ­ NO German army outside NATO ­ NO atomic weapons ­ NO biological weapons ­ NO chemical weapons Soviet Response: strengthen position in East Germany New Man in the White House: Eisenhower New Man in the State Department: John Foster Dulles ­ “The Free World” vs. “The Communist World” ­ protection to U.S. allies across the globe ­ criticized for overextending American power and getting involved in every conflict across the  world The “New Look” in U.S. Defense Policy: “Massive Retaliation” ­ rely on nuclear advantage over Soviet Union ­ if Soviets intervene ANYWHERE, the US has a right to unleash their nuclear weapons ­ no costs: Soviets unable to retaliate (can’t get their weapons to the US) ­ cheaper than sending tons of troops to Europe ­ John Foster Dulles: “brinkmanship” Global Blocs and the Nuclear Arms Race ­ Strategic Air Command     The End of American Invulnerability   ­ Sputnik: October 4, 1957 ­ Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM)     The Race to Close the “Missile Gap”   ­ American satellite crashes     The Campaign for Civil Defense   ­ fallout shelters ­ “Duck And Cover” ­ Bert the Turtle


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