Political Science Week one Notes
Political Science Week one Notes Political Science 141
Popular in American Government and Politics
Popular in Political Science
This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Notetaker on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Political Science 141 at University of Wisconsin - Whitewater taught by Eric Loepp in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see American Government and Politics in Political Science at University of Wisconsin - Whitewater.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Political Science 14104 Eric Loepp Chapter one Justice seems easy in abstract yet dif cult in the particular Key questions How should limited resources be allocated and who bears the burden of providing those resources Government is a set of institutions and procedures that rule a land and its people Government can be very simple such as a student government or complex such as the US national system Why have a government To avoid anarchy Government is essential because there is no way to enforce rules Need some basic form of government or there will be chaos quotlf men were angels no government would be necessaryquot Madison no one person is perfect THis is realistic due to the fact that everyone will put oneself before others Goals of the government Goa one Provide order ensure some sort of order Founders were VERY concerned about factions or a group of people with a common interest and coming together to dominate all the others Ultimate goal is to prevent any one faction from gaining power Goa two Promote General Welfare There are things that affect the country as a whole but not necessarily any given individual citizen People DO NOT like to sacri ce for the common good What is politics Politics refers to the con icts and struggles over the leadership structure and policies of government Maior themes 0 Politics is about con ict 0 Political process matters Process is a set of rules that impacts an outcome 0 Politics is a persuasive strategic game Con ict Politics is often a zerosum game in which one group39s gain is another group39s loss Chapter Two Key Questions What motivated the founders to make the decisions they did c We split from Britain because of the lack of representation high taxes and religion Colonists displeased with Britain meddling in affairs and taxation without representation There was a growing antibritish feeling More and more groups from in opposition to British rule In 1776 we formally declare independance and a declaration of war 0 We win now what The Articles of Confederation lay out their rst national government and loosely held the 13 states together It failed due to the lack of national government and given to much power to the states We feared centralized power Congress could not tax and there was no president Shays Rebellion 1787 Daniel Shay leads a group of farmers in rebellions against the state of Massachusetts to prevent foreclosures on their land Shay39s rebellion shows that the federal government had no power and shined a light on the problems with the government Constitutional conventions begins in May 1787 each state sent representatives to Philadelphia Original ideas was to quot xquot the Articles of Confederation The group decided the Articles of Confederation had too much wrong and a new government began James Madison are all people good or bad Madison were wary that people would go against what the government would say Major issues to tackle 1 How much power should the national government get relative to the states 2 What is the quotright amountquot of democracy 3 What could be done about slavery Most dif cult issues during the convention Declaration of Independence said all men are created equal Selling Constitution to America Movement to get constitution rati ed and pass it Should we support a new system in which a great deal more power is granted to a central government Those in favor were called Federalists Those not in favor were the Anti Federalists The Federalist Papers Papers written to advocate the rati cation of the proposed constitution 85 essays were penned anonymously by Madison Hamilton and Jay AntiFederalists also published a series of papers criticizing the proposed Constitution A big problem were factions Big challenge How do you keep a majority from oppressing a minority How do you control mischiefs of a faction We do not have a pure democracy We have a republic which means that the masses elect a subset of people who are in charge of making and enforcing laws We delegate power to a select group of individuals and they look out for us in law and policy Pluralism the more factions you have the more they offset each other and no individual group grows too big or too powerful Small vs Large States The Great Compromise How do you staff congress Legislator has two chambers based upon population Bicgmergl quis ture a lower chamber where representation is based on population and an upper chamber where all states are represented equally This is precisely what we got and still have today There are more balancing Such as National power deals with coinagetreaties with other countries trade and war While state deals with taxes infrastructure and education Reserved Powers if the Constitution does not give a particular power to the federal government that power therefore belongs to the state Federalist Paper 51 Part one A faction is a small organized dissenting group within a larger one and we can cure factions39 mischiefs by removing the cause of factions however this would lead to giving everyone the same opinion or destroying liberty Part two A faction is a small organized dissenting group within a larger one and we can cure factions39 mischiefs by trying to control them however this would lead to minorities and majorities and majorities would override any minority faction while majorities can be dealt with by preventing majorities from forming and prevent majorities from oppressing others so what we truly need is a REPUBLIC Supremacy clause This clause proclaims that all laws passed by the national government supersede any laws passed by the state government A state must execute a federal law just as would execute a state law Slavery The Constitution does not really talk about slavery There was no logical way to handle slavery Southern states wanted them counted as part of the state39s population because it would boost representation Northern states did not 0 john Adams was the only founding father who do not own slaves The quotsolutionquot is to count slaves as three fths of a person for the purposes of representation Have to reach a middle ground Slaves have no voting rights That39s all the constitution says about slavery The founders knew that slavery was a hypocrisy but they were constrained The south would not have been a part if there was nothing written towards slavery Federalists Centralized government Pro constitution Wealthy elite Elites run the show Antifederalist State control Wary of constitution Farmers blue collar Common man representation The bill of rights were given so the AntiFederalists to agree to support the constitution Bill of rights to give individuals say Three major differences Representation AntiFederalists wanted more representatives and greater representation of various interests Threats of majority AntiFederalists worried about aristocracy in itself federalists worried that a majority of the people would suppress the minority Governmental power Federalists wanted a more centralized government while AntiFederalists wanted more local control What do we get Constitution is short with seven different articles the rst three deal with the main government The legislature Representatives 435 serve two years Senators 100 six years Representatives seats are up for election at the same time but only one third of the Senate is ever up for election Bicameral or two chambers Keg Goal was balancing accountability with reasoned public policy Federalism and Separation of Power Key concept How does governmental power work Power determines who gets to make policy a Federalism refers to a diversion of power between multiple governments Example Chancellor College Letters and Sciences Political Science department 0 National and state government have certain powers reserved only to them However they share concurrent power in other stresses Examples police authority and taxes Privileges and immunities States have to treat citizens of other states as they would their own Promotes travel and economic activity asking states However there are exceonns Full faith and credit FFC Every state has to respect each other39s laws just as they have to respect the national government39s laws
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