02/02-02/04 ancient china and india
02/02-02/04 ancient china and india 27551
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Omar Barriga on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 27551 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Joshua Fan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see World History to 1500 in History at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Ancient china 02/04/16 2 RP due 02/11/15 China is the oldest continuous civilization! Throughout most of historical period, the Chinese account for at least a quarter of all humanity, sometimes as high as one third, not to mention its impact on its Asian neighbors and the world. J.F. facts o Silk worms were china biggest export. o Norther china is mostly arid. Therefore, rice crops are not possible to grow there. o Rice was mostly consume in the southern region of the country. o The yellow river obtained its name from the “yellow” color of its water. (water mix with sand) th o The yellow river it’s the 7 largest in the world. Although the yellow river is long and powerful, it’s not really useful. It isn’t deep enough to travel or to practice commerce. Controlling the river was essential for ancient cultures. o In contrast to the “yellow” river. The Yangtze river was actually useful. It could be used for traveling and agriculture. Making it an important river for the southern populations. First dynasties o Xia (yu the great) legendary ruler believed to have control the flooding’s of the yellow river. This story made famous the causes of “working for the greater good” o Shang – from this dynasty the oracle bones originated. The oracle bones were used as instruments to ask specific questions to god. Usually only the emperors could “ask” the questions. They were made out of turtle bone and scholars have hundreds of this bones. Zhou. o religion beliefs; the ancient Chinese believed that ancestors were able to communicate with people, and interact with the world. Chinese writing system o Hanzi is the name of their writing system. The writing has had multiple changes and additions through time, however, ancient texts are still “readable” for people that can read mandarin. o Each symbol represents an idea; therefore, there’s no actual ‘alphabet” people that can read mandarin have to memorize 2000 3000+ symbols to read. o Its writing system has more than 50,000+ symbols. This humungous amount of symbols made it hard to teach grammar. o There are 290+ languages in china. In ancient times, the dialects from region to region were so different to the point that they could be considered different languages. o o In history; Taiwanese people does not speak Mandarin. Shang dynasty o Chinese artisan’s made the best bronze pots, mask, and artifacts… they would put emphasis in the decoration of pots. Furnishing them with images of animals or Gods. Zhou dynasty o The mandate of heaven came up from around this era. The mandate of heaven is the belief and philosophical idea that tiān (heaven) granted emperors the right to rule based on their ability to govern well and fairly (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandate_of_Heaven, n.d.) Important questions to ask ourselves! o How does a ruler earn the mandate of heaven? o What are the signs that you lost it? o Why did the zhou created the concept? 02/02/16 The Indus valley civilizations The Indus valley civilizations The Indus river gets the water from the Himalayans and the Hindu Kush. Khyber Pass: important trading route for the Indus civilizations and the western world. The Khyber Pass is STILL RELEVANT today. It was used to practice commerce and it open the road for trading. Harrapan society There were 7 major settlements in the Indus valley. In reality there were more, however, the most important civilizations were only 7. The Harrapan ruins were discovered in the 1920s by European archeologist. Harrapa and mohenjo daro are DIFFERENT complex societies. There are a few known facts about these two civilizations. Scholars can’t agree about which society was more important, therefore, when we refer about societies in the Indus valley. We refer to them as; Dravidians. Mohenjodaro This society constructed “better” buildings than their Harrapan neighbors. They had the best sewage system of the ancient world. They developed writing, unfortunately, scholars haven’t deciphered how to read it. By the time IndoEuropeans arrive in the Indus valley; the Harrapan civilization had already collapse. Ghaggarhakra River ancient River (now driedup) that flooded through India and Pakistan. the river had an important role in the complex societies of the Indus valley. Its disappearance force migrations of different people to southern India. After settling in the Upper indus river valley; the IndoEuropeans nomads turn to an agricultural society. They named themselves “Aryans” Sanskrit Holy Indus language. The Varna society CASTE SYSTEM brahman (priest) kshatriya (kings, warriors, officials) Valshya (merchants) shruda (peasants. poor people) dalit "untouchables"- (they had different positions, however they were considered "dirty" or "inpure".they werent allowed to touch the Upper class as the brahman. Jati "sub-caste"- they could be considred part of the "Valshya" however, this group of people was wealthy. they separated themselves from the other groups. a good way to think of them would be as "wealthy merchants"
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