American Federal Government Notes Week 3
American Federal Government Notes Week 3 P SC 1113
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ryan Henry on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to P SC 1113 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr. Gary Copeland in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see American Federal Government in Political Science at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
American Federal Government Notes Week 3 “Federalism: A way to share power between a national government and regional governments” ● The constitution grants powers to both states and the national government that the other cannot infringe upon ● Unitary federalism grants powers exclusive to a national government which may opt to share power with states and a confederation grants powers to states but the states have to check power with national government. Factors influencing Power: ● The necessary and proper clause in the constitution, the commerce clause, the supremacy clause and the 14th amendment have all contributed to the growing power of the national government ● the 10th amendment has been used to protect state powers, especially recently ● Greater financial resources have also been used to advance the national government Federalism in the US: ● Power sharing is a source of contention between the national government and states ● Over time, both state and national governments have grown more powerful ● Over time, the national government has grown more powerful compared to states ● Reasons for Federal Government Growth: ○ Constitutional bias ○ Expansion of federal interests and expectations ○ States lack sophistication and revenues ○ Supreme court is the final arbiter ○ Civil War ○ The New Deal ○ Incorporation (civil liberties) ○ Civil Rights Public Policy: ● Devolution:the transfer or delegation of power to a lower level, especially by central government to local or regional administration. ● Unfunded Mandates: a statute or regulation that requires a state or local government to perform certain actions, with no money provided for fulfilling the requirements ● States share power with Federal government on many important policies Recent Increases in Federal Power: ● National Police power increased (as a result of 9/11) ● Moral issues/ Family law (Transgender treatment and same sex marriage) ● Education (with common core) ● Economic Bailout Consequences: ● The relationship between the national government and states is complex ● States compete for resources such as businesses and jobs ● States may limit help to needy in different ways Dual Federalism: ● Layered Cake: State and federal governments have separate jurisdictions and responsibilities ○ Nation centered federalism vs state centered federalism ○ Compact theory ○ Nullification and secession Cooperative Federalism: ● Marble cake federalism: State and national governments work together to resolve problems ○ Great Depression and the New Deal ○ Federal problem identification, program design, and grant funding to pay for program ○ State and local program implementation Centralized Federalism: ● Federal Government takes leading role, states and localities take back seat ● Grants in aid ○ Categorical grants ○ General revenue sharing grants ○ Unfunded mandates ○ Crosscutting requirements ○ Crossover sanctions New Federalism: ● States and localities should regain power and receive less funding from federal government ○ Devolution ○ Targeted block grants Ad Hoc Federalism: ● Sometimes state centered, sometimes nation centered ○ Depends on political or partisan convenience ○ Interagency Working Group on Federalism ○ September 11, 2001 Advantages of Federalism: ● Government decisions can reflect local preferences ● Reduces conflict between cit and gov ● Allows for policy experimentation ● facilitates national policy goals Disadvantages of Federalism: ● Complexity, confusion, and duplication ● Can increase conflict between governments ● Policy and service inequalities ● Reduces accountability ○ ● Makes coordination difficult
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