Biodiversity Notes for quiz 1
Biodiversity Notes for quiz 1 Bio131
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Graham Notetaker on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio131 at Elon University taught by David Vandermast in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Biodiversity in Biology at Elon University.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Biodiversity Class Notes Big Concepts: ● Biological Hierarchy ● Nomenclature ● pattern vs. process ● “small changes, compounded over time, result in big changes” Domains of Life: Bacteria, Archae, Eukarya ( prokaryotes ) Hierarchy of life: (Most inclusiveleast inclusive) Keys: What defines a species?INTERFERTILITY Homo Sapien= “wise” Nomenclature: “devising or choosing of names for things” ● Refers to including both genus and species ● Homo sapien (always capitalize Genus, lowercase sapien, all italic, or underlined if handwriting) Natural selection causes... ● Anagenesischange over time ● Cladogenesischange that creates a clade, or group of descendants with a common ancestor Earth History Important dates: 4.6 bya: Earth Formed 4.0 bya: Formation of liquid watNEEDED FOR LIFE) 3.8 bya: Oldest known carbon deposits that must have come from life forms 3.5 bya: date of oldest prokaryotes 1.5 bya: Multicellularity evolve 400500 mya: Colonization of land Important People: ● Oparin and Haldane hypothesis ○ Early Earth had a educing atmosphere. (Full of N, CO2, H, methane)o Oxygen! ● Miller and Urey Experiments ○ Tested ^ conditions, added electricity (lightning) and created basic amino acids needed for life Moving towards life… ● Protobionts: Abiotically produced molecules that exhibit simple reproduction and metabolism and maintain an internal chemical environment ● RNA: THought to be the first “living” genetic material ● Prokaryotes over polluted the atmosphere with oxygen, and thus most of them died in the “oxygen revolution” ● 2.1 bya Eukaryotes appear ● Endosymbiosis: Proposes that organelles (mitochondria, chloroplasts) were formerly small prokaryotes living within larger host cells. ○ Evidence: similarities in cell division, cell membranes, transcription/translation their own DNA, ribosomes are more similar to prokaryotic ribosomes ● Relationships ○ Facultative: both don't have to provide for each other, but can. ○ Obligate: cells must perform duty for both to survive. Multicellularity ● 1.5 bya, oldest fossil 1.2 bya ● Progression: protists algaefungiplants/animals ● “Snowball Earth” melted, which allowed for a greater diversity of life ● Benefits of being multicellular: ○ Larger size=fewer predators, eat more things, specialization of cells ○ More time for reproduction Colonization of land: ● Plants and Fungi colonized together ● tetrapods and arthropods were the most diverse/ widespread land animals ● “adaptive radiation” comes from mass extinctions. Refers to evolving in response to having a new environment (think prokaryotes that polluted the atmosphere with oxygen, the evolved ones went through adaptive radiation). ● “Exaptation” A trait that evolved for one purpose but became co opted for another
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