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Week 2

by: Sydney Shields

Week 2 Psych 715

Sydney Shields
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About this Document

Covering week 2
Psychology of Aging
Heather Renee Bailey
Class Notes




Popular in Psychology of Aging

Popular in Psychlogy

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Shields on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 715 at Kansas State University taught by Heather Renee Bailey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Aging in Psychlogy at Kansas State University.


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Date Created: 02/02/16
Stereotyping of Aging Ageism: prejudice/discrimination based on age Where? Grew up with them Media Obsession with youth Forgetful/ill-tempered Rarely see aging women in TV or Movies Future: younger people will have more experience with older adults Chapter 1: Do adults develop or de we reach maturity around age 20 and then decline? Freud: Puberty = end point of development Last 60 years began exploring important questions past early adulthood \ What is Development? Involves change May result from: learning Changes in behavior that result from experience Maturation Changes that result from normative aging Usually results from an interaction of both Lifespan Perspectives: Multidirectionally Multidimensionality Plasticity History and context Multiple causality Biological: genetic and health-related factors Psychological: cognitive, emotional, personality factors Sociocultural: interpersonal, societal, cultural, ethnic factors All 3 interact = biopsychosocial model of aging Defining Age Primary Age: Normal, disease-free development during adulthood Inevitable Secondary Age: Development related to disease, lifestyle, and other environmentally induced changes that are not inevitable Tertiary Age: Rapid losses that occur shortly before death Measuring Age: How Old Are You? Chronological: time since birth Limitations Individual variability Intra-individual variability Time does not cause everything Perceived Age: how old you see yourself as Psychological Age: functional level of psychological abilities Sociocultural Age: roles we adapt in relation to other members of our society and culture Biological Age: measure of how well organ systems, etc, are functioning Concepts and Controversies in Aging Controversies in Development Nature vs Nurture: hereditary? Environment? Intelligence Stability vs Change: Degree to which we remain the same Personality Continuity vs Discontinuity: smooth development? Abrupt shifts? Response speed; approach to solving problems Universal vs Context Specific: Does development take one or many different paths depending on environment? Methods of Studying Research Method Issues Research design is a compromise between being theoretically ideal and practical Age - related changes in motor coordination using video games Age - related changes in language comprehension by evaluation SAT reading ability measure How general issues of methodology apply to aging Issues of methodology unique to aging Population Complete collection to be studied, it contains all subjects of interest Sample Part of the population of interest Importance in aging Advantage: able to study many age - related changes Disadvantage: unable to study the effects of poverty on life satisfaction Importance of random and representative sampling Most research conducted on well-educated, European Americans Are these samples representative of all Americans? Of all older adults around the world? Generalize other groups? Peak circadian arousal periods As we age, circadian rhythms change "early to bed, early to rise" pattern Associated with less overall sleep (including time in deep sleep) and more awakenings Why? Light is strongest cue for circadian rhythms 2 hrs of bright light exposure required to synchronize circadian rhythms Older adults may not receive sufficient light exposure Are you a "lark" or an "owl"? Intermediate MEQ Children prefer mornings Young adults prefer afternoon/evenings Older adults prefer mornings College students get higher grade when course schedules are in synch with circadian arousal patterns Age differences are reduced (or even eliminated) when older adults are tested at optimal times Systematic Observation Naturalistic observation: watching people in their natural environment Laboratory observation: watching people in an environment created by researcher Sampling Behavior Create tasks that are assumed to measure a particular behavior Self-Reports People's answers to questions about a topic of interest Diaries, interviews, questionnaires Experimental Designs Studies the effect of one variable on another Manipulates an independent variable to determine itseffect on a dependent cariable Can be conducted in the field or in the lab Independent variable: manipulated Dependent variable: studied/measured for possible changes Advantages: Establishes "cause and effect" relationships Highly controlled Disadvantages: May not generalize to the real world True experiments: Directly manipulate independent variables Involve random assignment of individuals into control and experimental groups Quasi-experiments: No random assignment Use naturally occurring groups Correlational experiments: No independent or dependent variables No manipulation - simply measuring 2 variables Interested in relationship between 2 variables Attempt to find positive or negative relationship between variables Quantify using correlation coefficient Strength of a relationship = "r" R = 0 R < 0 R > 0 Advantage Allows us to predict one variable on the basis of another Disadvantages Cannot establish cause and effect relationships Need to be careful of extreme values in aging research Case Studies The study of a single case or individual in depth Often used to study rare phenomena Diseases Individuals with extremely high ability Advantages Flexibility Generating new hypotheses or areas of study Disadvantages May not generalize to others Cannot establish cause and effect relationships Designs for Studying Development Cross-sectional study People of different ages and cohorts are observed at one specific time of measurement Advantages: More time-effective Less expensive Disadvantages: Age differences only Cohort effects Longitudinal study People from one cohort are observed two or more times of measurement Advantages: Age changes No cohort effects Disadvantages: Time-intensive Costly Attrition Selective attrition Technological Innovation Time of measurement effects Practice effects 3 Potential Reasons for Age Changes Age effects Differences caused by biological, psychological, or sociocultural Time of measurement effects Differences caused by environmental or historical events at the time of data collection e.g. economy Cohort effects Differences caused by circumstances unique to the generation being measured e.g. wars, technology Common Research Design inAging Extreme Age Group Design Efficient High power for age effects Inflates magnitude of age effects Can't distinguish abrupt from continuous age influences


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