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Week Two Notes

by: Kayla Notetaker

Week Two Notes COM 240

Kayla Notetaker
GPA 3.27

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About this Document

These notes are from Tuesday, 2/2/16 and Thursday, 2/4/16. Let me know if you have any questions! -Kayla
Mass Media of Communications
Ivan B. Dylko
Class Notes
mass communication
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Notetaker on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COM 240 at University at Buffalo taught by Ivan B. Dylko in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Mass Media of Communications in Communication at University at Buffalo.


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Date Created: 02/02/16
Mass Communication and its Digital Age Part 2:    Effect on Media Organizations  → ​Cost of content creation and distribution has always been very high­ only big companies  could historically do it.  → Internet greatly reduced these costs, enabling small companies to create and mass distribute  their content.   → The downside is that low­quality and inaccurate information can spread quickly.  Example: Emails spread with documents saying the president wasn’t a citizen.    On Media Content:​  (Ex. Wikipedia, YouTube, Instagram photos and videos)  ­ On demand content (not requiring user to be in specific space/time to consume content) is  growing more popular.  ­ Content isn't static. → wiki or blog post  ­ Also user­ generated content grew in popularity.  → Mash­ups of existing content (ads, music videos, political speeches) are very popular.   Example: President mash­ups     On Media Audiences:  ­ Historically, audiences were large, heterogeneous and anonymous.  ­ “Producers”­ individuals who used to be passive audiences and who are now actively  creating content.   ­ Audiences also critique, fact­ check, and even influence traditional news media  ● Examples: Political Blogs and CBS’ “Rathergate”  On Media Profession:  → Reporters and PR Professionals must be able to write long stories, shoot video, take  pictures, write stories for social media.  → Reporters are also learning to use audience during news gathering/ writing process.   ● Phenomenon called “citizen journalism”  ● Asking citizens to provide specific information from their local area.  ● Being more responsive to audience feedback/criticism     On Media Usage:  “how we use media”  ­ use several/ multiple screens at the same time.  ­ traditionally disadvantaged groups (females, non­whites, less educated, low­income)  have less access and use of fewer communication technologies than traditional elites.   ­ Portable devices allow us to be constantly socially connected.   ­ Are we more connected with people than the past?  ● Answer: No, not necessarily it sort of takes away from face­to­face  communication. It does help us stay in contact with distant family though.   Mobile Media:  → ​Mobile devices send more traffic than desktop computers to top news websites.  *However, desktop users spend more time on those sites per visit.  Newspapers:  ­Revenue continues to decline. (online is free to read!)  ● By the time newspapers come out it’s “old news” you’ve probably already seen it!  ­print ad revenue still substantially greater than digital revenue.    Podcasts:  ­ growing in popularity (driven by use of mobile phones)  ­ 33 percent of americans 12 years of age or older say they have listened to at least one  podcast.  Electronic Devices:  ­ Phones and tablets are growing more popular others stagnate.        Chapter 2: Media Literacy in the Digital Age      Media Literacy­ The process of interacting with media content and analyzing it critically by  considering its particular presentation, its underlying political or social messages, and  ownership, and regulation issues that may affect what is presented and in what form.    ● Has two parts:    ­Knowledge of basic facts about media, content, content effects, content production process,  media organizations’ business models, etc.  ­Actively using this knowledge during media content consumption.     ­Importance of Media Literacy­  ● Because media is so pervasive in our lives and can create powerful social and  psychological effects on individuals and society, media literacy should be studied as  commonly as geography, biology or mathematics.       Cultivation Theory­ George Gardner   ­The ‘core’ of cultivation theory     ­Level of TV viewing  → Belief about the world        *People will believe the world is unsafe  because of all the negativity on the news.    ­ A theory about TV­  ●  TV is “society's institutional storyteller”  ●  TV is is socialization agent.    ­Like family, church, or school it’s a place where we obtain information.     Assumptions:  →  messages are relatively uniform  ●  This glues TV as storytellers true power  ● Video is a powerful channel. Why?   ­People tend to believe what they see!   → TV viewing is habitual and passive    Cultivation analysis:  ●  Participants placed in two groups  ●  Light TV viewers less than 2 hours  ●  Heavy viewers 4 or more hours  ●  content analysis of TV programs is done   to see how TV describes the world  ●  Cultivation exist when heavy TV viewers believe the “TV world” to be the “real world.”      → TV creates the mean world syndrome  ●  The world presented through TV is much more violent than the world  ­ By age 18 the average viewer will see 13,000 violent deaths on TV!   *Heavy TV viewers believe the real world is equal to TV world.     Mainstreaming:   ● Overtime heavy TV viewers develop a similar mindset (cultural convergence)  ● Such mindsets focus on the need for safety and security  ●  can impact a range of socio­political orientations (including support for particular political  parties)   Example: more violence may help push Democratic view for gun control    →  Resonance:   ­Cultivation effect is amplified when:  A. One is a heavy TV viewer   B.  One has experienced violence personally. (Has been mugged was in a fight, saw  displays of violence.)    → Correlation:   ­The extent to which two or more things are related to one another  →  It ranges from “­1” to “1”  ●   ­1 is a perfect negative correlation  ● +1 is perfect positive correlation  ● 0 is  no correlation  * Human Nature “common sense” approach   correlation does not equal causation   Example: ice cream sales are highly correlated with drowning accidents.   But, does eating more ice cream cause people to drown?  ­ No! A third variable summer heat, causes more people to eat ice cream and people to drown  more often because they swim more.     → Criticisms   “Correlation not equal to causation”   ­Fearful people watch TV because they are afraid to go outside and they feel TV accurately  depicts reality!  ­ Third variables could also explain cultivation effects.  ●  Example high crime neighborhoods     How does media affect our attitudes towards particular content?   ­The content you really enjoy will have unintentional effects on you, which are usually negative.     


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