BIOL 5600 Notes 1/14/16
BIOL 5600 Notes 1/14/16 BIOL 5600
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by LaurenC on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 5600 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Mendonća in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 107 views. For similar materials see Biomedical physiology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Humans are endotherms Endotherms use internal processes to maintain a favorable temperature. Homeostasis Vs. Allostasis Same concept A) Homeostasis: Focuses on the concept of constancy itself B) Allostasis: All that it takes to maintain the consistency Focuses on what changes to keep the set point The set point can change depending on the conditions Homeostatic Imbalance A) Disorder B) Disease More specific than disorder Recognizable set of symptoms and signs a) Symptoms Subjective to the patient Ex. headache, nausea b) Signs Something you can see, measure Ex. increase blood pressure, rash Homeostatic state is highly dynamic One of the most critical thing the body must maintain Volume and composition of body fluids Body fluids are Dilute H2O solutions (and dissolved in the H2O is gas, charged ions, proteins, nutrients, etc.) Body Fluids: Compartments: Intracellular Fluid (ICF) compartment houses fluid in cells Extracellular Fluid (ECF) compartment houses fluid outside of cells 1) Interstitial fluid Intercellular Fills space in between cells 2) Plasma Liquid portion of blood Not formed elements of blood (WBC’s, RBC’s, platelets) Hematocrit is the percent of formed elements usually 50% in healthy humans 3) Minor Categories A) Lymph Lymph vessels Oneway vessels In lymph fluid you will find: Fats Immune cells >These get dumped back into the venous system B) Trans cellular Fluid secreted by special cells into enclosed cavities Ex. Synovial fluid >Fluid between bones and freely moving joints) CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) >Fluid in your central nervous system Aqueous humor >In eye Gastric juice GI secretions Urine Mucous The human body is 5070% H2O (~60%) The percentage varies because of the ratio between fat and lean More lean = more H2O More fat = less H2O In general, women have lower percentages of water Total Body Mass Women 45% solid 55% fluid Men 40% solid 60% fluid >2/3 Fluid is ICF 40% BM (Body Mass) >1/3 Fluid is ECF 20% BM >> 80% is interstitial fluid ~50% of BM >> 20% is plasma ~2% of BM Information from Chapter 1 in book: Boundaries between compartments 1) Intestine Layers: Intestine wall Capillary wall Plasma (ECF) Capillary wall Interstitial (ECF) Cell membrane Intracellular (ICF) Dry weight method Weigh, heat at high temperature (cook), and weigh again Not useful for live patients Dilution technique 1. Used to calculate fluid volume in different compartments 2. Inject substance that will stay in the plasma membrane and not cross the capillary/ cell membrane Ex. of substances Evans Blue Labeled albumin 3. Take blood sample and see how much diluted Ex. of result 100 mg of substance, then blood sample said 1 mg/ml = 100 ml of plasma Equation: concentration = quantity/volume 4. Take insulin. Insulin can cross capillary membrane, but not cell membrane Ex. of result 300 mg of insulin 1mg/ml of insulin in plasma = 200 mg/ml interstitial fluid 5. Then, do something that crosses all membranes (capillary and cell membranes) Doubly labeled H*2O* (isotopes) Ex. 700 mg/ml 1mg/ml of substance =400 mg/ml of intracellular fluid Cell/plasma membrane Explained by fluid mosaic model 1 of the most important things that maintain homeostasis Important because it’s selectively permeable Phospholipid bilayer Hydrophilic phosphoheads on outer sides (peripheral) Hydrophobic lipid tails on inner sides (integral) Integral and peripheral proteins throughout >Integral proteins extend through both layers >Peripheral proteins extend through only one layer The phosphoheads and lipid tails can exchange places 10M times per second. This, momentarily, creates very small holes that allow water to pass through. Composition of the lipid bilayer: 1) 75% of the molecules are phospholipids 2) 20% of the molecules are cholesterol >Has a steroid 4ring backbone with hydroxyl group attached 3) 5% of the molecules are glycolipids >Lipid with carbohydrate group attached The bilayer can be described as being amphipathic because it has a polar (hydrophilic) and nonpolar (hydrophobic) side The cholesterol component Weakly amphipathic Forms weak bond with phosphohead Makes lipid bilayer stronger, but less fluid by binding to it More cholesterol effects permeability and changes vascular composition The glycolipid component Carbohydrate group is polar Lipid group is non polar sticks out of the cell membrane found on the extracellular side part of the glycocalyx >the glycocalyx gives identity to the cell by defining the cell type and defining the cell for each person Many integral proteins are glycoproteins that contribute to the glycocalyx Glycocalyx formed by glycoproteins and glycolipids molecular signature of cell helps cells adhere (stick) together protects cells form being digested by enzymes in the extracellular fluid Functions of plasma membrane proteins 1) formation of channel/pore/opening allows passing of certain types of ions >certain ones allow the passage of water (aquaporin) channels can selectively be opened or closed A) passive channels open all the time B) regulating/gated facultatively open more often gated 1. Chemically gated responds to chemical signal 2. Voltage gated responds to electrical signal 2) Proteins can function as transporters can bind to a substance and help move substances from outside the cell to inside and vice versa can be integral or peripheral 3) Proteins can act as receptors tend to be peripheral proteins tend to be extracellular Ligand: anything that binds to a receptor a receptor creates ad chemical reaction inside cell associated with another protein 4) Enzymes can catalyze some chemical function inside the cell 5) Act as specialized cell to cell contacts (linkers) A) tight junction crosses two plasma membranes B) Gap junction C) Desmosome reinforced tight junction has cytoskeletal tubules/filaments to secure its place 6) Cell identity markers Cell membrane permeability lipid bilayer is directly permeable to most non polar, uncharged molecules Ex. lipid soluble substrate fat soluble substrate steroids vitamins O2 CO2 N H2O (polar) >through the small breaks in the small breaks in the structure between movements
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