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Chapter 3 Notes - POLI 201

by: Sierra Crumbaugh

Chapter 3 Notes - POLI 201 POLI 201 001

Sierra Crumbaugh

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These notes cover all of chapter 3 of political science.
American National Government
Class Notes
political science, chapter 3, history, National Government
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra Crumbaugh on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLI 201 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Darmofal in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 146 views. For similar materials see American National Government in Political Science at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 02/02/16
Chapter  3 Thursday,  January  28,  201610:32  AM Two  of  the  Most  Important   Institutional  Features Thursday,  January  28,  2016 10:04  AM Federalism divides  power  into  two  levels: National  and  State Separation  of  powers divides  each  level  of  government   against  itself These  institutional  features  limit  the  power  of  government   by  dispersing  power  and  making  collective  action  difficult Founders  were  elites  and  saw  a  lot  of  activity  in  the   articles  of  confederation  at  the  state  level They  wanted  to  make  a  national  government   that  made  it  as  difficult  as  possible  to  create   policies  because  they  didn’t  want  the  opinions   and  wants  of  the  lower  class  and  the  normal   people  to  be  able  to  change  policy   Auxiliary  Precautions Thursday,  January  28,  2016 "A  dependence  on  the  people  is,  no  doubt,  the  primary   control  on  the  government;  but  experience  has  taught   mankind  the  necessity  of  auxiliary  precautions."   -­ James  Madison,  Federalist  51 Federalism  and  the  separation  of  powers  are  important   precautions  against  the  "tyranny  of  the  majority" Wanted  to  reduce  popular  influence  on  the   government  while  still  allowing  the  popular  people   to  be  involved  in  elections  and  some  sort  of   political  action precautions  against  the  "tyranny  of  the  majority" Wanted  to  reduce  popular  influence  on  the   government  while  still  allowing  the  popular  people   to  be  involved  in  elections  and  some  sort  of   political  action Institutions  are  Not  Carved  in   Stone Thursday,  January  28,  2016 • Institutions  are  subject  to  revision  and   modification  as  competing  forces  seek  new   decision  rules  that  will  give  them  an  advantage • Federalism  and  separation  of  powers  have   evolved  considerably  over  time Why  Keep  the  States?? Thursday,  January  28,  2016 • Some  at  the  Constitutional  Convention,   particularly  Alexander  Hamilton,  preferred   an  even  stronger  national  government   than  the  one  they  created • The  well-­‐established  history  of  the  state   governments  was  an  important  reason  the   states  retained  so  much  power.   ○ Pre-­‐Civil  War:  The  United  States  are   (plural)   ○ Post-­‐Civil  War:  The  United  States  is   (singular)   Defining  Federalism Thursday,  January  28,  2016 Federalism  is  the  division  of  powers  and   functions  between  the  national  and  state   governments • The  Constitution  provides  "expressed   powers"  and  "implied  powers"  to  the   Federalism  is  the  division  of  powers  and   functions  between  the  national  and  state   governments • The  Constitution  provides  "expressed   powers"  and  "implied  powers"  to  the   federal  government • The  10th  Amendment  reserves  the  rest  of   governmental  power  for  the  states ○ Founders  recognized  that  they  were   creating  a  Constitution  that  couldn't   get  rid  of  the  states  and  that  needed   to  get  9/13  of  the  states  on  board   with  the  Constitution ○ Had  to  take  into  account  the  states   that  were  more  interested  in  power   vested  in  the  states Why  Federalism  Matters:   Hurricanes  Katrina  and   Sandy Thursday,  January  28,  2016 • In  the  case  of  Hurricane  Katrina  (2005),   federal,  state,  and  local  officials  blamed   one  another  for  the  government's  slow   response • When  Hurricane  Sandy  (2012)  hit  the   New  Jersey  shore,  President  Obama   and  state  and  local  officials  were  very   careful  to  work  together  to  coordinate   disaster  response. States'  Obligations  to  One   Another Thursday,  January  28,  2016 • The  Constitution's  Full  Faith  and  Credit   Clause:States  are  to  recognize  actions  and   decisions  taken  in  other  states  as  legal  and   proper Another Thursday,  January  28,  2016 • The  Constitution's  Full  Faith  and  Credit   Clause:States  are  to  recognize  actions  and   decisions  taken  in  other  states  as  legal  and   proper ○ Driver's  licenses  and  marriage ○ Wanted  to  move  away  from  the   Articles  of  Confederation  and  wanted   to  make  sure  that  all  the  states  acted   as  one  unit/country • The  Privileges  and  Immunities  ClauseA:     state  cannot  discriminate  against  someone   from  another  state  or  given  special  privileges   to  its  own  residents ○ Colleges  and  acceptance/tuition?? Local  Government  and  the   Constitution Thursday,  January  28,  2016 • Local  governments  (counties,  cities,  towns,   etc.)  are  not  granted  any  power  in  the   Constitution,  as  they  are  creations  of  the   state  legislatures  and  state  constitutions.   • Most  states  have  given  larger  cities  in  their   states  home  rule:  a  guarantee  of   noninterference  in  local  affairs Four  Stages  of  Federalism Thursday,  January  28,  2016 10:44  AM 1. Dual  Federalism  (1789 -­‐1937) 2. Cooperative  Federalism  (1937-­‐1960s) 3. Regulated  Federalism  (1960s -­‐1990s) 4. New  Federalism  (1990s -­‐Present) Dual  Federalism:   • Powers  were  shared  between  the  federal  and   state  governments • States  exercised  the  most  important  powers • It  was  called  "dual  federalism"  because  the   Dual  Federalism:   • Powers  were  shared  between  the  federal  and   state  governments • States  exercised  the  most  important  powers • It  was  called  "dual  federalism"  because  the   duties  and  operations  of  the  different  levels  of   government  remained  more  strictly  separated • Policy  responsibilities  largely  rested  on  the   states Exceptional  Cases  Establish  National  Power: • McCulloch  v.  Maryland  (1819)  established  the   power  of  the  federal  government  by  utilizing   the  necessary  and  proper  clause  by  utilizing  the   supremacy  clause • Gibbons  v.  Ogde(1824)  reinforced  federal   power • Despite  these  cases,  federal  power  barely  grew   until  the  New  Deal From  Dual  Federalism  to  Cooperative  Federalism: • During  the  New  Deal  (1930s),  Congress  enacted   legislation  expanding  the  federal  government's   role  in  regulating  commercial  activity • The  Supreme  Court  shifted  course  and  upheld   federal  regulation  of  a  variety  of  commercial   activities  (NLRB  v.  Jones  and  Loughlin  Steel   Company)   Cooperative  Federalism: • Marked  by  supportive  relations,  sometimes   partnerships,  between  the  federal  government   and  the  state  and  local  governments • A  ride  in  "grants -­‐in-­‐aid":  funds  given  by   Congress  to  state  and  local  governments Regulated  Federalism:   • The  federal  government  dictates  national   standards  states  must  meet  or  rules  states   must  follow • A  rise  in  unfunded  mandates:  national   standards  or  programs  imposed  on  state  and   local  governments  without  accompanying   • The  federal  government  dictates  national   standards  states  must  meet  or  rules  states   must  follow • A  rise  in  unfunded  mandates:  national   standards  or  programs  imposed  on  state  and   local  governments  without  accompanying   funding New  Federalism: • Efforts  to  craft  national  policies  to  return  more   discretion  to  the  states • Rise  in  block  grants • Unfunded  Mandates  Reform  Act • Loosening  of  federal  restrictions  on -in-­‐ aid,  like  the  Welfare  Reform  Act • Efforts  by  the  courts  to  interpret  the  interstate   commerce  clause  more  narrowly New  Federalism  and  the  Health  Care  Reform  Act: • Is  the  individual  mandate  in  the  new  health   reform  law  constitutional? ○ NO! § There  is  no  expressed  power  in  the   Constitution  to  require  citizens  to   purchase  anything  from  a  private   firm,  and  it  has  nothing  to  do  with   regulating  interstate  commerce.   ○ YES! § The  penalty  imposed  for  not   purchasing  health  insurance  is  a   tax.  In  addition,  this  is  simply  part   of  regulating  a  commercial  activity,   just  as  most  states  require  people   to  purchase  auto  insurance.   Separation  of  Powers Tuesday,  February  2,  2016 10:14  AM "You  must  first  enable  the  government  to  control  the   governed;  and  in  the  next  place  oblige  it  to  control   itself." -­‐James  Madison,  Federalist  51 Tuesday,  February  2,  2016 10:14  AM "You  must  first  enable  the  government  to  control  the   governed;  and  in  the  next  place  oblige  it  to  control   itself." -­‐James  Madison,  Federalist  51 → The  separation  of  powers  seeks  to  limit  the   power  of  the  federal  government  by  diving   government  against  itself Checks  and  Balances:  A   System  of  Mutual  Vetoes Tuesday,  February  2,  2016 → The  Constitution  establishes  mechanisms   through  which  each  branch  of  government  is   able  to  participate  in  and  influence  the   activities  of  the  others → Each  branch  has  agenda  and  veto  power  that   requires  cooperation  among  branches  to  get   things  done Legislative  Supremacy Tuesday,  February  2,  2016 → The  Constitution  did  not  create  "separate   but  equal"  branches ○ The  legislative  branch  was  expected   to  be  the  most  powerful  branch ○ This  is  one  reason  for  bicameralism → Branches  are  given  the  power  to  defend   themselves  against  "encroachments" Separation  of  Powers   and  the  Rise  of  Divided   Government Tuesday,  February  2,  2016 Separation  of  Powers   and  the  Rise  of  Divided   Government Tuesday,  February  2,  2016 → Democratic  Congresses  struggles  with   the  Nixon  and  Reagan  administrations   for  the  control  over  war  and  spending   powers → A  Republican  House  of  Representatives   struggled  for  policy  control  and   eventually  impeached  Bill  Clinton   (although  the  Senate  did  not  convict   him) Divided  Government  has   Remained  the  Norm Tuesday,  February  2,  2016 10:39  AM → In  2007  and  2008,  Democratic   Congresses  confronted  George  W.   Bush's  administration  over  issues   ranging  from  the  War  in  Iraq  to  the   SCHIP  Program → In  2011  and  2012,  Republican  control   of  the  House  of  Representatives  led  to   dramatic  conflict  over  taxes  and   spending Checks  and  Balances:  The   Rationality  Principle  at   Work Tuesday,  February  2,  2016 → The  idea  behind  checks  and  balances  is   perhaps  the  clearest  expression  of  the   rationality  principle  at  work → "Ambition  must  be  made  to  counteract   Work Tuesday,  February  2,  2016 → The  idea  behind  checks  and  balances  is   perhaps  the  clearest  expression  of  the   rationality  principle  at  work → "Ambition  must  be  made  to  counteract   ambition.  The  interest  of  the  man  must   be  connected  with  the  constitutional   rights  of  the  place." -­ James  Madison,  Federalist  51 Checks  and  Balances  and   the  Debt-­‐Ceiling  Increase Tuesday,  February  2,  2016 10:51  AM → Congressional  Republicans  wanted   spending  cuts,  including  cuts  to   Medicare → President  Obama  insisted  on  tax   increases  on  wealthy  and  defense   spending  cuts → Checks  and  balances  kept  each  side   from  dictating  terms  to  the  other Checks  and  Balances  and   the  Fiscal  Cliff Tuesday,  February  2,  2016 → At  the  end  of  2012,  Congress  and  the   president  faced  the  "fiscal  cliff,"  a   combination  of  spending  cuts  and   significant  tax  increases  set  to  kick  in   unless  a  different  agreement  could  be   reached → Eventually,  the  parties  agreed  to   increase  taxes  on  those  earning  over   $400,000  and  set  a  deadline  for  the   sequester  later  on increase  taxes  on  those  earning  over   $400,000  and  set  a  deadline  for  the   sequester  later  on The  Role  of  the   Supreme  Court  has   Evolved  Over  Time Tuesday,  February  2,  2016 11:00  AM → Judicial  Review:  the  Court's  ability  to   strike  down  presidential  actions  or   laws  passed  by  Congress → Used  sparingly  for  most  of  American   history → Used  more  frequently  in  recent  years Collective  Action  or   Collective -­‐Action   Problem? Tuesday,  February  2,  2016 → Do  federalism  and  the  separation  of   powers  facilitate  collective  action  or   create  new  collecti-­‐action  problems?   Both  are  true: ○ By  dispersing  power,  collective   action  is  made  more  difficult ○ By  giving  each  branch  some   influence  over  the  others,  these   institutions  facilitate  negotiation,   compromise,  and  moderation


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