PSY 1010 Chp 6/Week 4
PSY 1010 Chp 6/Week 4 PSY 1010
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Belson on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1010 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Amy Kohl in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Chp 6 Tuesday, February 2, 2016 6:00 PM Sensation: process through which senses pick up visual, auditory, and other sensory stimulus from the environment,and transmit them to the brain A. Transduction: process of converting energy, chemicals, and physical stimuli in the environment into neural activity Absolute Threshold: minimum stimulation necessary to detect a stimulus a. Level needed to detect stimulus 50% of the time Difference threshold: just noticeable threshold a. Level needed to detect DIFFERENCES between two stimuli 50% of the time b. These are proportional,not absolute c. In terms of percentages Light: energy that behaves as both particles and waves, and is transduced by the eyes into neural activity. A. Brightness:determined by the amplitude, higher = brighter B. Color: determined by wavelength, C. Saturation: refers to purity of the color The Eye A. Sclera- white part of eye that maintains shape and provides protection B. Iris- colored part of the eye, contracts and relaxes to allow light, controls size of pupil C. Pupil- opening in the middle of the iris, changes size due to light conditions D. Cornea- clear membranein front of the iris that bends light rays E. Lens- behind the pupil a. Visual Accommodation: lens changes shape from thick to thin, enabling us to focus near/far F. Retina- light sensitive area on back wall of the eye a. Three layers i. Ganglion cells ii. Bipolar cells iii. Photoreceptors(rods and cones) G. Fovea- small area on retina comprised of mostlycones a. Most sensitive to detail b. Vision is sharpest H. Optic disk- where ganglion cells leave the retina to become optic nerve a. Contains no photoreceptors,meaning there is a blind spot Process: 1. Light enters eye, passes through first two layers of the retina and strikes rods and cones 2. Activates bipolar cells which activates ganglion cells 3. Ganglion cells bundle together to form optic nerve that goes to the brain Convergence: A. one cone per one bipolar cell a. Low convergence,greater acuity b. Small pixel B. Many rods per one bipolar cell a. High convergence,lower acuity b. Big pixels Sensitivity: A. Cones need brighter light to fire B. Rods can also fire when stimulated by lower levels of light Cones are sensitive to color a. three types of cones sensitive to different wavelengths b. Less light = less cones firing = less color vision Trichromatictheory A. Three types of cones a. Original: red, green, blue b. Reality: blue/violet,green, green-yellow c. The combination and rate at which these fire produce color vison Opponent-process theory A. Four primary colors arranged in opposing pairs a. Red Green b. Blue Yellow c. If one is stimulated, the other is inhibited B. Evidence to support this: there are no greenish-reds, or yellowish-blues, and afterimages Deviations in cones A. Monochrome colorblindness a. No cones, truly no color B. Colorblindness (dichromatic vision) a. Missing one cone, or having a cone that does not work properly b. Red-green colorblindness common i. Sees in blues, yellows, and greys C. Tetrachromacy a. Four cones b. Extra cone is red orange yellow c. No dramatic difference *This is sex linked inheritance Feature detection A. Some visual neurons respond to specific features of a visual scene a. Lines, edges, angles B. Many of these feature detecting cells fire at any given time C. Brain constantlyassembles details into coherent image SUMMARY 1. We see something 2. Retinal processing (rods and cones, then to the bipolar cells, and then the ganglion cells) 3. Feature detection (edges, gradient, bars) 4. Abstraction (combine info from feature detecting cells to create one coherent image) 5. Recognition Audition: the sense or act of hearing; our ability to detect and transduce sound waves A. Psychologicalproperties a. Pitch: a sounds detected highness or lowness i. Frequency: the number of wavelength in a period b. Loudness b. Loudness i. The height of the wave The Ear A. Outer ear a. Pinna: visible ear structure, funnels sound waves into auditory canal i. Different shapes lead to slight differences in auditory sensation ii. Your height also impact sensation B. Middle Ear a. Ossicles:three tiny bones: hammer,anvil, stirrup b. These amplify the vibration of the ear drum C. Inner ear a. Cochlea: contains fluid which vibrates and stimulates the organ of corti b. Organ of Corti: contains hair cells, which are our auditory receptor cells i. Vibration bending the hair cells is what causes them to fire a message to the Auditory nerve Place theory A. The pitch we hear is due to which hair cells are stimulated a. Closer to oval window results in high pitch b. Lower pitch is further down the organ Frequency Theory A. Pitch depends on speed of vibration a. Fast = high pitch b. Slow = low pitch Olfaction: the sensation of smell, the process of smelling A. A type of chemoreception, meaning that we detect chemicals in the air and transduce them into neural patterns a. Only detect chemicals that are volatile (readily form vapors) b. Chemicals also need to have shapes that bind to the receptorsites The Nose A. Olfactory epithelium a. Two 1 square inch patches of tissue, one at the top of each nasal cavity, which together contain about 10 million olfactoryneurons, receptors for smell. B. Olfactory Bulbs a. Two match stick sized structures above the nasal cavity where smell sensations first register in the brain b. Sends info directly to the olfactory cortex C. Olfaction is the only sense that is not routed through the thalamus! Habituation: the tendency of the brain to stop attending to the constant unchanging info A. Still detect/processsensory info B. Odorants can enter bloodstream/prolongeffect Sensory adaption: the tendency of sensory receptor cells to become less responsive to an unchanging stimulus A. No longer detecting sensory info A. No longer detecting sensory info Olfactory fatigue: your olfactoryreceptors are tired, and no longer send information about that smell Gustation: the sensation of taste A form of chemoreception,we detect chemicals in food Five basic tastes Sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami (triggered by glutamate) The Mouth Papillae: the small bumps on your tongue A. Four types B. Three of them contain taste buds Tasted buds A. Structures composedof 60 to 100 sensory receptors for taste Supertasters A. Greater number of papillae = more intense taste B. Occurs more in women C. Particularly sensitive to bitter Flavor is a combined sense of taste and smell To discern the difference… A. Eat food with nose plugged a. Taste B. Eat food normally a. Flavor Touch A. Pressure B. Warmth C. Cold D. Pain a. Extremelyimportant b. Nociceptorsfire in response to extremesin pressure, temperature, or chemicals Different types A. Visceral:organs B. Somatic: skin, muscles, tendons, joints Congenital analgesia: inability to experience pain Phantom limb pain: feeling pain in a limb that has been removed,research suggests due to a trauma to nerves during amputation Endorphins A. Chemicals produced by the pituitary gland that reduce pain and positivelyaffect mood Kinesthetic sense A. The sense providing information about relative position and movementof body parts B. Gives the position of body parts in relation to each other and the movementof the entire body and or its parts Vestibular sense A. The sense that provides info about the body's movementand orientationin space through sensory receptors in the semicircular canals and vestibular sacs, which detect changes in the movementand orientation of the head Perception A. Sensations are disassembled, so perception is reassembling them (various stimuli info) into a meaningful and recognizable form B. Our brains construct our perceptions, and not always accurately Constancy Size constancy: the tendency to interpret an object as always being the same size regardless of distance Shape constancy: tendency to interpret an object's shape as constant, no matter the angle/position Brightnessconstancy: tendency to interpret an object's brightness as constant, regardless changes in lighting conditions Perceptionchanges from momentto moment,mostresponsive to most relevant sensations. EG- cocktail party effect: related to sensory adaption Gestalt means "whole" "the whole is more than the sum of its parts" They applied this to sensation and perception Figure/Ground: objects in the visual field tend to stand out more than what surrounds the object Grouping- tend to group objects together into meaningful categories A. Proximity B. Similarity C. Closure D. Continuity Images that go to the retina are two dimensional but we see on three dimensions Retinal Disparity:each eye gets slightly different image A. Brain interprets these differences Angle of convergence: if object is close, eyes must have sharp angle to see object (rotationof eyes in sockets) A. If far away, angle is less. Linear Perspective:parallel lines converge with distance Relative size: if objects are the same size, one farther away will appear smaller Overlap: thing in front (partially blocking another) is closer Aerial perspective:stuff farther away looks hazier/blurier Texture gradient: stuff closer to you is more distinctly textured than stuff farther away Motion parallax: close objects appear to movemore quickly than objects farther away Expectation of what will be perceived affects what actually is perceived Also can be called a mental predisposition Tendency to look for order in random events and ambiguous stimuli A. This why you freak out after c's come 5 times in a row on a test Pareidolia: the tendency to find patterns in ambiguous stimuli Top down processing A. Use our knowledge and completepicture to make sense of stimuli B. Going to meet friend somewhere,you see someonewho looks like your friend so you wave Bottom up processing Bottom up processing A. Using features to make sense of stimuli B. But as you're approaching, its not your friend
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