Buskirk 1/29 Lecture Notes
Buskirk 1/29 Lecture Notes BIO 311D
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Richa Patel on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 311D at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Buskirk in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Biology at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Lecture 1/29 1. What are “linked genes”? a. Necessary to consider where the genes were located b. Mammals have chromosomal sex determination c. Y chromosome has a gene (sry) codign for a testis- determination factor protein d. Tend to be inherited together (go into the same gamete) because they are near each other on the same chromosome. e. What would “unlink” these genes? Crossing over; allele inherited from dad could end up on a chromosome from mom 2. Alleles in a gene pool – intro to population and Hardy- Weinberg equation Genotype + Environment >> Phenotype (hydrangea color depends on shade, pH and aluminum content of the soil as well as genes) Siamese cars at Himalayan rabbits What is the genetic basis? Lack of heat, the temperature where those cells are are lower than the rest of the body; the gene for black coloration is turned on when the body temperature is lower than the other parts of the body; temperature dependent expression and this gene is expressed as the fur is developed How could you test that basis? Clicker Question: ½ (hemophilia) Mendel’s laws: segregation of alleles, independent assortment What is an exception to independent assortment? LINKED GENES! Here is a pair of homologous chromosomes in an individual genotype AaBb. Note linked genes. When meiosis occurs, what are the combinations of alleles possible in the gametes made by this individual? Clicker Question: if one crossing over event…A) __A__b___d_/___a__B___D__ What causes variation amoing individuals in a population? Environemtn and genotype determine the phenotype –in population genetics we focus on genetic sources of variation Describe a gene pool quantitatively in terms of allele frequencies and genotype frequencies. 3. Gene pool = sum of all alleles in a population ( here, 60 alleles in 30 individuals); all the alleles in a population 4. Allele frequency: the proportion of a certain allele at a given locus in all individuals within a population (A or a) a. P(A) + q(a) = 1; p+q=1 b. P^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1 5. Genotype frequency: the proportion of a given genotype within a population (what are the possibilies for the A/a locus) Use the hardy-Weinberg equations to predict these frequencies in subsequent generations. 2
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