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Buskirk Lecture 2/1 Notes

by: Richa Patel

Buskirk Lecture 2/1 Notes BIO 311D

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Richa Patel

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Hardy Weinberg Equations
Introductory Biology II
Dr. Buskirk
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Richa Patel on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 311D at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Buskirk in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Biology at University of Texas at Austin.


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Date Created: 02/02/16
Bio 2/1 1.The hardy Weinberg equation related allele and genotype frequencies: a. P + Q = 1 (only 2 alleles possible; frequencies must add up to 1) b. Genotype frequencies: p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1 (only 3 genotypes possible; frequencies add up to 1) c. These equations are derived from applying the Punnett Square to populations Clicker Question: there are two alleles for a certain gene locus, A and a. 70% of the alleles in a particular gene pool are A. what is the genotype frequency of AA individuals (p^2)? B: .49 Handout 3, #4 Based on allele frequencies (p,q) in your sample (approximations are ok, round off), use the Hardy-Weinberg equation to calculate the genotype frequencies you would expect to find in the next generation: A1A1 (p^2) = .09 A1A2 (2pq) = .8 A2A2 (q^2) = .25 Assumptions of Hardy Weinberg equilibrium a)Large population size (no genetic drift) b)No gene flow into or between populations c) Mutations very rare (not significant) d)Random mating (not mating only with close relatives or nearby neighbors) e)No natural selection When assumptions NOT met -> microevolution! Microevolution is a change in allele frequencies in a population over time. We want to be able to describe things quantitatively and when these assumptions are not meant we see the causes of evolution. Which of these would take a population out of equilibrium for a trait? a)Crossing over during normal meiosis? It wouldn’t affect it, its normal meiosis so there is no nondisjunctions or mutations b)Individuals with that trait having fewer offspring? Yes! Natural selection is affecting the equilibrium c) A trait being recessive (a) instead of dominant (A)? No! doesn’t matter if it is recessive or not Chance alone (stochastic factors) could cause changes in gene frequency, most strongly in small populations. By chance, the CW allele frequency in this small population dropped to zero in two generations. a)Some gene loci are fixed (entire population has the same allele); other loci are variable (called “polymorphic”) 2


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