Sociocultural Anthropology (2)
Sociocultural Anthropology (2) ANTH 2243
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heidi Hilts on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 2243 at University of Oklahoma taught by Tassie K. Hirschfeld in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociocultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Intro to Sociocultural week 2 notes 1/26/16 Vocabulary: Progress vs. degeneration Darwin 1850s Spencer Morgan Tylor Lamarck Boas 1400s – 1800s Displacing people o Displaying in zoos, bringing them to Europe and teaching them European culture Measuring skulls o It was thought that higher brain capacity meant higher intelligence Studied empirically but based on incorrect assumptions Thus natives were found to be inferior to europeans o Stephen J. Gould “mismeasure of man” Redid old experiments Measure interior volume Found inconsistencies o They were taking out outliers in original experiments o Confirmation bias adjusted sample size to create results they already believed in graves excavated for experiments look at physical and behavioral material culture subsistence Lewis Henry Morgan (1860s – 1880s/90s) o Unilineal path to civilization Savagery Barbarism Civilization Spencer Social Darwinism o Survival of the fittest o Biological Spencerism o Belief that your position in society is depended on your biological superiority/inferiority Marx Capitalism benefits bourgeoisie not the proletariat o Post-capitalist society o Communist society o Workers uprise and seize control o Primitive communism o Feudalism o Capitalism o Socialism o Communism 1/28/16 notes Boas 4 fields of anthropology o Physical o Cultural o Historical (archaeology) o Linguistics Social policy o Immigration Boas discovered that traits such as skull size were not just based on genetics, but were impacted by the environment (epigenetics) Immigrants’ children had larger skulls because they had better nutrition After measuring skulls as debunked, people started the IQ test o Flawed because it measures intelligence as defined by western culture o Intelligence is what is valued culturally Boasian anthropology o Neutral, doesn’t make value judgements, tries not to be ethnocentric o Cultural relativism o Boas envisioned new way to measure human variation Cultural variation o Boas definition of culture comes from Tylor “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society” Historical particularism Cultural behavior is not racially/biologically based o Ethnohistory Learn people’s language, history Margaret Mead
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