Psych 110 Reading Notes Due 2/12
Psych 110 Reading Notes Due 2/12 PSYC 110 - 008
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Briel on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 110 - 008 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Alexander Malik Khaddouma in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see General Psychology - in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Summary of Homework Reading Assignment: Pages 202-211 Due Friday February 12, 2016 Concepts to Know: Classical Conditioning -Pavlov’s Discoveries -Principles of Classical Conditioning -Higher-Order Conditioning -Applications of Classical Conditioning to Daily Life Learning- change in an organism’s behavior or thought as a result of experience Habituation- the process of responding less strongly over time to repeated stimuli Example) Close your eyes. The soft buzzing of the lights in the room, the feeling of the clothing against your skin, the sensation of your tongue on your teeth or lips….we don’t notice this because of habituation. (we have adapted to these sensations) British Associations- believed that we acquire virtually all of our knowledge by conditioning (forming associations among stimuli) Pavlov’s Discoveries: Pavlov’s primary research was digestion in dogs (earned him a Noble Peace Prize in 1904) What did he do? Pavlov placed dogs in a harness and inserted a cannula into their salivary glands to investigate their salivary response to meat powder. What did he find? Dogs began salivating not only to the meat powder, but to previously neutral stimuli that had become associated with the meat powder, such as the research assistants who brought the powder out. Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning- form of learning in which animals come to respond to a previously neutral stimulus that had been paired with another stimulus that elicits an automatic response How Pavlov First Demonstrated Classical Conditioning Systematically: 1. He started with an initially neutral stimulus, one that did not elicit any particular response. 2. He then paired the neutral stimulus again and again with an unconditioned stimulus. 3. He observed something remarkable. The new response was to the initially neutral stimulus. Unconditioned vs. Conditioned Unconditioned Stimulus Conditioned Stimulus a stimulus that elicits an automatic Initially neutral stimulus that response comes to elicit a response due to association with an unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned Response Conditioned Response automatic response to a non- Response previously associated neutral stimulus that does not with a non-neutral stimulus that is need to be learned elicited by a neutral stimulus through conditioning Principles of Classical Conditioning: Acquisition- learning phase during which a conditioned response is established Extinction- gradual reduction and eventual elimination of the conditioned response after he conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus Spontaneous Recovery- sudden reemergence of an extinct conditioned response after a delay in exposure to the conditioned stimulus Renewal Effect- sudden reemergence of a conditioned response following extinction when an animal is returned to the environment in which the conditioned response was acquired Stimulus Generalization- process by which conditioned stimuli similar, nut not identical, to the original conditioned stimulus elicit a conditioned response Stimulus Discrimination- process by which organisms display a less pronounced conditioned response to conditioned stimuli that differ from the original conditioned stimulus Higher Order Conditioning- developing a conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus by virtue of its association with another conditioned stimulus. Applications of Classical Conditioning to Daily Life: -classical conditioning is used I advertising -fetishes -disgust reactions Latent Inhibition- difficulty in establishing classical conditioning to a conditioned stimulus we’re repeatedly experience alone that is, without the unconditioned stimulus Fetishism- a sexual attraction to nonliving things
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