Introduction to Psychology
Introduction to Psychology PSY 100-002
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alessa Rulli on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100-002 at Northern Kentucky University taught by Smita Ward in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology - SB in Psychlogy at Northern Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Psychology Chapter 1: Introduction, History and Research Methods. 1) What is Psychology? a) It is the study of thoughts (cognitions), emotions (affect), and behavior b) Psychologists describe, predict, explain thoughts, emotions, and behaviors c) Some psychologists help people change (coping with anxiety) d) How Psychologists are portrayed in the media vs. what most psychologists study—very few study serial killers or work as criminal profilers; not all are therapists. 2) Perspectives in psychology a) Cognitive perspective: Internal mental process, what people thinking or feeling. i) Cogitation refers to thinking and memory processes b) Behavioral perspective: learning and behavior Is described and explained in terms of stimulus-response relationships. i) Study behavior c) Biological Perspective: study brain structures and neurochemicals. i) Charles Darwin (1859) demonstrated this idea that genetics and evolution plated a role in influencing behavior through natural selection. 3) Specialties in Psychology a) Clinical: most common specialty. i) Concerned with the assessment and treatment of mental illness and disability. b) Counseling: Maintains a focus on facilitating personal and interpersonal functioning across the life span. Pays attention to emotional, social, health-related, and developmental concerns i) More likely to deal with more typical problems ii) Ex. Marriage, work, family c) Experimental: concerned with the scientific investigation of basic psychological processes. i) Ex: perception, cognition and learning. d) School: Psychological testing, such as for learning disabilities, but they might also intervene when a child is having behavioral problems. i) Differ from school counselors. e) Education: studies children in an educational setting and are concerned with teaching and learning methods, cognitive development, and aptitude assessment. f) Developmental: scientific study of how and why human beings develop over the course of their life. i) Paternal development, the effects of parents and peers in children, or cognitive declines in old age. g) Biological: Study the interaction of biology and psychology, such as the role of a particular brain structure in memory or the effect of a hormone on aggression. h) Health: Psychological and behavioral processes in health, illness, and healthcare. i) It is concerned with understanding how psychological, behavioral, and cultural factors contribute to physical health and illness. i) Social/ Personality: i) Personality- focus on individual differences (1)Introverts vs. extroverts ii) Social- focuses on how people in general react to different situations. (1) “Everyday life”- attraction, helping behavior, and persuasion. j) Industrial/Organizational: focuses on increasing workplace productivity and related issues such as the physical and mental well being of employees. i) Studying worker attitudes and behavior, evaluating companies, and conducting leadership training. k) Forensic: interaction of the practice of study of psychology and the law. i) Found working on prisons, jails, rehabilitation centers, police departments, law firms, schools, government agencies, or in private practice. ii) Examining the interaction of Human behavior, criminology, and the legal system. l) Human factors: Study human performance when working on machines. i) Engineering psychology or ergonomics 4) History a) Wilhelm Wudnt – 1879 from Leipzig, Germany i) 1 psychology laboratory ii) Used the introspection Technique- “study of conscious experience” (1)Looking inward at ones own conscious experience. b) Edward Titchener i) Wudnt’s Student (1)Moved to the United States and started a psychology laboratory at Cornell University. ii) Structuralism: focused on discovering the structure of conscious experience by breaking it down into psychological elements. (1)What makes up the structure of conscious experience. Wundt held a different perspective, he called “voluntarism” to emphasize is view that attending to a sensory impression is an act of will. c) William James i) Disagreed with structuralism and introspection (1)Proposed that is the function of conscious experience ii) James asked questions provoking thoughts. iii) Functionalism (1)Proposed that it is the function, not the structure, of thoughts and behaviors that is important. d) Gestalt Psychology i) Emphasized that people see whole forms and that the whole is more than the sum of the parts. e) Sigmund Freud i) Trained medical doctor ii) “our thoughts and activities are strongly influenced by our unconscious. (1)Psychodynamic: emphasizes aspects of personality that are active in conflict (a)Theory (2)Psychoanalysis: From the psychoanalytic perspective, disorders can be caused by the unconscious problems. Primary goal is to gain insight into what is buried in one’s unconscious so problems can be addressed (a)Therapy (3)Unconscious- very important and influences us in everyday life. (4)Free association: technique in which the client talks about whatever comes to mind. (a)Hypnosis- when our minds are the most vulnerable. (5)Dream Analysis (a)We dream during rem sleep. (i) Our most vivid dreams will occur right before we wake up (ii)Multiple dreams a night (b)Look at dreams as symbols (i) Ex: dreaming of falling or forgetting something – there is a much deeper context then what the dream shows us. f) John Watson i) Behaviorism: exclusively focusing on observing behavior. (1)“Prediction and control of observable behavior” ii) Born as “blank slates” (1)Infant (a)Ex: 9 month old albert and white mouse (i) Every time albert played with the mouse, Watson would bang things together to induce fear. (ii)Albert, after a while feared white, fluffy things such as mice, bunnies and even Santa Claus. iii) He did teach us that we can induce behavior when children are young. g) B.F. Skinner i) Behaviorism (1)Interested of the effects of rewards and punishments on behavior ii) Worked primarily with animals (1)Ex: taught pigeons to guide missiles iii) The most famous behaviorist and most famous psychologist after Freud. 5) Humanistic Psychology a) Suggested that psychology should focus on distinctively human qualities. b) Adam Maslow i) Hierarchy of needs theory. ii) Known for his ideas about motivation iii) Academic leader of humanistic Psychology c) Carl Rogers i) “Nice-therapist” ii) Therapeutic leader of humanistic Psychology (1)Person-centered therapy (2)Start reaching fullest potential 6) Cognitive perspective a) Intelligence b) Memory c) How we process good and bad decisions Diversity in Psychology -Research Methods 1) Theories, Hypothesis, and science in general a) Theory: general idea or framework that helps to organize what we know and want to know about a topic b) Hypotheses: testable idea derived from a theory c) Science is a method, not content 2) Basic and Applied Research a) Basic Research- research designed to test theory i) May not have an obvious or practical purpose b) Applied Research- research designed to address a practical problem i) Practical purpose is obvious 3) Generating Ideas a) Several ways to generate ideas in Psychology b) ideas often spring to mind when one reads about or conducts research. 4) Some Descriptive Statistics Characteristics of the data a) Mean-the average i) Sensitive to extreme numbers b) Median- middle value in the data c) Mode- most frequent number in the data d) The variability in values -Descriptive Research 1) “Describe a Phenomenon” 2) Naturalistic Observation a) Research that involves observing behavior in its natural setting 3) Case Study a) In-depth investigation of a single person or small group of people b) When you are very descriptive when observing people. 4) Public Opinion Poll a) Representative or random sampling b) Type of descriptive research in which people surveyed about their view on a topic or issue. -Correlational Research 1) Seeks to discover of two variables are correlated, that is, related or associated in same way. 2) Ranges between -1.0 to 1.0 3) Positive Correlation a) Ex: studying increases, grades increase 4) Negative Correlations a) Ex: as number of classes skipped goes up, grades go down. 5) Magnitude or Strength of a correlation a) The degree to which the variables are related 6) “Correlation does not imply causation” a) Direction problem i) Reason why causation cannot be inferred from correlation. If two variables are correlated, either might cause the other 7) Third variable Problem i) Reason why causation cannot be inferred from correlation. If two variables are correlated, neither might cause the other because both are caused by a third variable. -Experimental Research 1) Evaluates causation 2) Experimental Group a) The participants who receive the factor that the research is investigating 3) Control Group a) Used as a standard or baseline against which the experimental group is compared 4) Random assignment to groups a) Randomly determining which condition each participant is assigned to. 5) Independent Variable a) The variables manipulated in the experiment 6) Dependent Variable a) The variables that are measured in an experiment 7) Internal Validity a) The degree to which am experiment is free from confounds, and so one can be fairly sure that any effects on the dependent variable are due to the independent variable. i) Demand Characteristics: Aspects of an investigation that tip off participants about what researchers would like to find. ii) Social Desirability: A bias that involves the tendency to answer in ways that will look good. iii) Experimenter Bias: occurs when an experimenter influences participants and thinks that effect is due to the variable being studied. -Being a Research Participant 1) Approval by an Institutional Review Board a) A committee at a university or college that must approve research projects before they can be conducted 2) Consent form a) A form given at the start of most studies that informs potential participants about the study and advises them of their rights. b) A crucial purpose of the consent form is to assure the participant that they can choose to leave the investigation at any time with no penalty. 3) Debriefing a) A procedure at the end of most experiments in which the researcher tells the participant about the study b) Go over results with the participant(s).
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