NTRI 2000 Week 4 Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Anderson on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTRI 2000 at a university taught by Dr. Greene in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Alyssa Anderson Nutrition Notes Week 4 Digestive System A. Gastrointestinal Tract 1. Tube from your mouth to your anus 2. Responsible for the digestion and absorption of nutrients B. Accessory Digestive Organs 1. Salivary glands 2. Liver 3. Gall bladder (can be removed) 4. Pancreas C. Check out the digestive system ﬁgure in your book D. Check out the mouth diagram in your book E. Esophagus 1. Muscular tube connecting the pharynx (throat) to your stomach 2. Food moves by a series of coordinated constructions known as peristalsis (check out the ﬁgure in your book) 3. Esophageal sphincter a. Regulates the movement through the esophagus b. Must relax to allow food to enter the stomach c. Prevents back ﬂow of food (unless necessary) F.Stomach 1. Large sac for holding food 2. Stomach contains gastric juice (water, hydrochloric acid, enzymes, and the intrinsic factor) 3. Muscle of stomach church gastric contents into chyme 4. Pyloric sphinter controls the rate of chyme entering the small intestine 5. Check out the stomach diagram in your book 6. What keeps the stomach from breaking down/digesting itself? a. Mucous- stomach is lined with a thick layer of mucous so gastric juice doesn't come into contact with the tissue of the stomach b. HCL and enzymes are primarily released only after eating G. Small Intestine 1. Site of most of the digestion sand absorption of nutrients 2. Check out the diagram in your book 3. Intestinal hormones released (getting chyme ready) a. Secretin- released bicarbonate from pancreas b. Cholecystokinin (CCK)- releases digestive enzymes from pancreas and regulates the release of bile (made in the liver and is important to the digestion of fats) from the gall bladder into the small intestine 4. Because of folds in the mucosa, villi, and microvilli on cells, the surface area for absorption is huge 5. Capillaries absorb the water soluble compounds 6. Lymph vessels absorb the fat soluble compounds 7. Undigested food passes on the large intestine (colon) via the ileocecal sphincter 8. Look up the small intestine diagram in your book H. Large Intestine 1. Only a minor amount of carbohydrates, proteins, and fast escape the absorption and reach large intestine 2. No villi or enzyme (no digestion or major absorption) 3. Some absorption of water, some vitamins, some fatty acids, and the minerals sodium and potassium 4. Home to a large population of bacteria (over 500 species), yeast, and viruses 5. Look at large intestine diagram in your book 6. As water is absorbed, contents become semi-solid 7. Becomes feces (water, undigested ﬁber, tough connective tissue, bacteria, dead intestinal cells, and body waste) 8. Contractions occur as a mass movement 9. The rectum ﬁlls 10. Anal sphincters control waste management 11. TABLE 3.4 IN BOOK I. Liver 1. Releases number of unwanted substances that travel with bile to the gallbladder 2. End up in the small intestine, eventually in the large intestine for excretion (you can’t live without a liver) J. Gallbladder 1. Organ attached to the underside of the liver 2. Bile storage, concentration, and secretion 3. Bile- released through common bile duct into the ﬁrst segment of the small intestine that is essential for digestion and the absorption of fat 4. Enterohepatic circulation (hepatic = anything with the liver) - continual recycling of compounds like bile acids between small intestine and liver K. Pancreas 1. Has both endocrine and digestive functions 2. Manufatures hormones- glucagon and insulin 3. Produces “pancreatic juice”- a mixture of water, bicarbonate, and a variety of digestive enzymes Urinary System A. Kidneys, ureter, bladder, urethra B. Kidney 1. Produces urine, which is the modiﬁed ultra ﬁltrate of he blood 2. Functional unit of kidney is the nephron 3. Nephron is involved in the processes of ﬁltration, reabsorption, and secretion 4. Look at nephron/urinary system diagram in your book 5. Kidneys are used in the formation of vitamin D 6. Kidneys produce a hormone, erythrpoitin, that stimulates the production of red blood cells 7. Helps regulate blood pressure and ﬂuid balance Nutrient Absorption A. Passive Absorption (diffusion)- concentration dependent B. Facilitated Absorption ( transport)- carrier or receptor dependent C. Active Absorption (transport)- carrier/receptor and energy dependent D. Phagocytosis/pinocytosis- form of active transport; often cancer cells take advantage of these cells in order to grow rapidly and feed off nutrients E. TABLE 3.2 DIAGRAM Digestive disease case Problem: An elderly woman sees her doctor and complains of pain 2 hours after eating, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite. What condition does she have? An ulcer caused by helicobacter pylori, which is an excess of the bacterium which causes peptic ulcer disease. Barry Marshall and J. Robin Warren were awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 2005 for discovering it. They did it themselves, then took antibiotics and were cured. What are the potential therapies? Antibiotics. Diseases Related to the Digestive System A. Constipation 1. Difﬁcult or infrequent evacuation of the bowels 2. Increase ﬁber consumption such as dried fruit to stimulate peristalsis 3. Drink adequate ﬂuids, especially water 4. Relaxation/regular exercise 5. Probiotics/laxatives can lessen constipation (consult a health professional ﬁrst) B. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) 1. As many as 25 million Americans suffer from this syndrome 2. Symptoms include cramps, easiness, bloating, irregular towel function, diarrhea and constipation, or alternating episodes of both 3. Visible abdomen distention 4. Hard to pinpoint exact causes, but possible that it’s caused by altered intestinal peristalsis or decreased pain threshold 5. Treat it through elimination diet, moderate caffeine, low-fat, small, frequent meals, stress reduction C. Celiac Disease and Gluten Sensitivity 1. Chronic, immune-mediated disease precipitated by exposure to dietary protein gluten 2. **Genetically predisposed people** 3. Found in certain grains, wheat, rye, barley 4. Affects about 1% of U.S. population 5. Flattens villi 6. Limits absorption of nutrients 7. Treatment should include a blood test for antibodies to gluten D. Gastroesophageal Reﬂux Disease (GERD) 1. Fancy way of saying heartburn 2. Half of North American adults experience occasional heartburn 3. Heartburn can damage the lining of the esophagus Central Dogma of Biology A. DNA <—> RNA —> Protein B. There is an emerging ﬁeld of genomics in nutrition C. Nutritional Genomics- interactions between nutrition and genetics 1. Important because there are variations in nutrient requirements 2. Studies the responsiveness to dietary modiﬁcations 3. Helps us understand the impact of food on the gene expression 4. Helps us know our susceptibility to nutritionally related diseases Diagrams Digestive Tract Stomach Small Intestine Mouth Large Intestine Urinary Tract Peristalsis https://www.google.com/url? sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0ahUKEwi6uafMsNjKAhXEFT4KHd1 XD8QQjB0IBg&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.webmd.com%2Fdigestive-disorders %2Fpicture-of-the-intestines&psig=AFQjCNEC- yAA8MNlHbU_5dKly2TE7nhckw&ust=1454478450014645 https://www.google.com/url? sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0ahUKEwiPivygsdjKAhVDVz4KHYi MD8UQjB0IBg&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.pinterest.com%2Fsafonovaazimova %2Facknowledge-yourself-with-urinary-system-physiolog%2F&bvm=bv. 113034660,d.cWw&psig=AFQjCNECkLW4qxPZio7jF7wmHQmivtET7w&ust=145447861 6644790 https://www.google.com/url? sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0ahUKEwigi7_XsNjKAhWDaD4KHe SQA8QQjB0IBg&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.easynotecards.com%2Fnotecard_set %2F3502&psig=AFQjCNEnxfmxnuWWVw3I14nHH0g9V- NXfA&ust=1454478473218903 droualb.faculty.mjc.edu https://www.google.com/url? sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0ahUKEwjQzfa5sNjKAhVIcT4KHX1 BAsQQjB0IBg&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.passmyexams.co.uk%2FGCSE%2Fbiology %2Fdigestive-system.html&bvm=bv.113034660,d.cWw&psig=AFQjCNFhpmeJSXOm1- qC3HUihzxEIxtnyA&ust=1454478384189427 https://www.google.com/url? sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0ahUKEwj-8JGUsNjKAhUFHD4KHb JeCcQQjB0IBg&url=http%3A%2F%2Fhumananatomybody.info%2Fmouth-muscles- diagram-2%2F&bvm=bv. 113034660,d.cWw&psig=AFQjCNGWZHa7iIpC7xwB3zdrE3abO7gQDQ&ust=14544783 28183040 https://www.google.com/url? sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0ahUKEwit7dGIsdjKAhWJej4KHYGu AMQQjB0IBg&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.easynotecards.com%2Fnotecard_set %2F3502&bvm=bv. 113034660,d.cWw&psig=AFQjCNHks9h2rYeO5jUhpuTGZiMjnde2gQ&ust=1454478561 261292
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