Week 4 notes
Week 4 notes ARTH1001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Drake Lundstrom on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH1001 at The University of Cincinnati taught by Erin Hackmann in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see History of Art 1 in Art History at The University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Week 4 Notes: Monday, 2/01/2016 Review from last week: Ancient Egypt is shrouded in mystery until Rosetta stone is found. This allowed the decoding of Egyptian writing. Unification of upper and lower Egypt is start of the upper dynastic period. The palette of Narmer: ceremonial, used to mix eye makeup of king. Bas relief, low relief. Human body was shown in twisted perspective. There is no depth. There is a canon of proportions. Many gods shown as animals or human animal hybrids. Djoser’s funerary complex. Very important for the first architect in history, Imhotep. The pyramids used to be coated in limestone and gilded top. They represent the sun god. Sphynx: colossus, which is any statue bigger than life size. Menkaura and a queen: portrayed pretty equally. Scribe: a more lifelike representation of a person. New stuff: Amarna Period Unique period of history. Knig abondons the largely polytheistic beliefs and declares Aten to be the most universal and important god. He throws people out of temples of other gods, and moves the capital city to start from the ground up and creates new temples for Aten. Amarna style, huge changes in art. Greater artistic freedom. Nontraditional body types, very round and curvilinear. Almost feminine portrayal of the pharaoh. This sytle disappears at the end of his reign. Akhenaten and his family: sunken relif sculpture, carved into the stone rather than coming out of it. Pharaoh shown with his family. The warmth and family relationship shown is unprecedented in ancient Egyptian art. This would probably be a private artwork in the king’s home. The figures are elongated and exaggerated, moving away from the strict geometric canon. Curvilinear lines. The picture implies a single moment and movement with the family. Very different character than the stiff, formal, and eternal earlier sculptures. Important: A sun disk in the middle of the relief represents the sun god aten. The rays of light are blessings. This is new, since gods used to always be shown as only people or animals. Nefertiti: painted limestone sculpture of queen Nefertiti. The main wife. She was given a great deal of status, and there are even images of her dispatching an army, which is a power for the king alone. This depiction conforms to the ideals of beauty at the time. The sculptre is brightly painted. Though the queen was lengendary for the beauty, but even so, the sculptor did idealize the sculpture. Stucco was used as ancient Egyptian photoshopping. Under the reign of the next king, Tutankhamun (king tut), restored the old religious values. He ruled from age 9 to 18. The king possibly dies of an infaction, and he had birth defects. What makes him so famous is that his tomb had not yet been robbed when it was discovered, which is highly unusual. He is also famous for the terrible events that happened afterward, the mummy’s curse. The benefactor died, and so on. One of the most important thing was the mummy itself, which was inside of stacked coffins. He had a golden mask with the traditional idealized vista of the kings of the past, such as the headdress and beard. The headdress is very elaborate, much gold and precious stones Inner coffin made of 243 pounds od gold. He holds the crook and the flail, traditional symbols of Oriris. Tutmania swept the world. It came to the US again in 1970s. Book of the dead: collection of spells and prayers, often illustrated. It was put on scrolls. Judgment of Hunefer: new part of religion, only the good can go on to the good afterlife. The scroll is a continuous naritive, all parts are shown at one. The death is questioned, heart is weighed, and is good, that can pass on. Heart is weighed against ostritch feather, which represents the god of truth. He is presented to Osiris, the god of the dead. Wednesday, 2/3/2016 Unit 1 exam Friday, 2/5/2016 Ancient Aegean: Distinct from ancient greek, thrived during the Bronze age. The bronze age: followed the stone age, characterized by the ability to create bronze. Th objects studied are very important to understanding these cultures, especially since only 1 out of 3 of their languages have been decoded. Cycladic culture: emerged in the Cyclades in the southwest Aegean sea. Created objects and sculptures out of marble, and were mostly produced in the high point of their art that is what we will study. They left no written history, so we only learn from artifacts, many of which are found in graves of the deceased. Figure of a woman: A plank idol. These nude women with arms folded are very common and range from a couple inches to 5 feet. The human body is pared down to the essentials and made of geometric shapes. Details are added with a sharp tool. This figure is biladerally symmetrical, meaning that if you drew a like down the middle, each side mirrors the other. These figures are so evenly proportioned, that it is believed that they were planned out before hand using a compass. They appear to stand, but are not meant to stand and cannot stand on their own. They are almost exclusively found in grave sites. They were usually very brightly painted asymmetrically. Wide open eyes on random parts of the body, and things like that. Some believe that the eyes meant for connection to the viewer, or to draw healing power to the marked parts of the body. Head with remains of painted decoration: Would have been ritually painted and repainted to represent important parts of owners life (Just a theory, not for sure). We believe that they were a important part of their culture. Because these are to modern looking and sheke, their cost has skyrocketed, and there are grave robbings done to take them. Minoan history: Lived on the island of Crete, developed into a wealthy sea power. Divided into two main periods, old and new (not that important). Discovered by Sir Arthur Evans, he found a huge palace after purchasing and escavating land. Minotaur myth might stem from this culture, bulls are a important part of their culture, and the palace is similar in size and complexity to a laberynth. Karmares wates Jug: Minoan pottery, very important. Minoans originally used hands alone, but around 2000BCE, they came up with the potters wheel. Kamares wheel is very impressive for its delicate structure and design, with some vessels having sides thicker than eggshell. They were decorated with curvilinear plant and flower motifs and painted with many colors. Kameres ware was sought after by many groups in the ancient world and soughts after by groups as far away as Egypt and Syria. Reconstruction of the Palace Complex: Build, destroyed by earthquake, rebuild. One of the earliest usade of dressed stone in building. Dressed stone is cutting stones to specific shapes to help with building, Built with part stone, part wood, with the wood’s flexibility allowing it to survive earthquakes. This palace was also a marketplace, culture center, and a cult center for religious ceremonies. These was a theater, courtyards, and even a plumbing system. At the palace’s peak, it covered 6 acres of land. The palace was surprisingly never fortified, but it is to believed to be because they lived on a mostly isolated island. Boun Fresco: good fresco. Paint is allied directly to wet plaster surface. Very permanent, and needs to be done very quickly. Fresco secco: Dry fresco, the artist paints on top of an already dry wall. It is much easier to do, but the paint flakes off much quicker. Bull leaping: A Fresco, and heavily restored, with only the dark patches being from the original. It depicts a Minoan bull leaping ceremony, where the bulls horns are grabbed and you leap over the bull and onto its back. It has a very Minoan sense of movement Men and women are distinguished not only by body type, but by skin color. The Minoans had a sort of naturalistic art, but still quite stylized. Humans are shown in profile with a stick thin waist. Howver, they are still more naturalistic than the ancient Egyptians. The Minoans are characterized very heavily through a sense of movement and motion. (that will be on the exam) Woman or goddess with snakes: (not in the book) female figures are very common in Minoan art, and it seems women were important in the minoan religion. The sculpture is made of faience: a kind of glazed, glasslike ceramic ware. She is wearing a typical minoan dress that bears the breast. This depiction is common, but sculptures are divided between it being a goddess, or it being a priestess. She seems to fall in the category of ‘mistress of the beast’. Water, regenerative power, or protection of the home are other possible explanations for her. Also, snakes were a good thing in this time period, symbolizing fertility and agriculture, among other things. Restoration techniques have changed a lot in recent years. Earlier restorers have tended to overrestore and it is unsure about how correct the restoration is. Two views of the harvester Rhyton: Made of steatite, covered in gold leaf, very small. Probably used for ceremonial purposes. An example of Minoan relief sculpture. Very restored. Shows 27 men either going to or coming from a harvest. They are very dynamic, like other parts on Minoan art. Shows a man singing, and one of the first even sculptures to depicts underlying human form, like bones under the skin (ribs in this case). The octopus flask: Marine style: ceramics covered with depictions of aquatic life. One of the recurring themes of Minoan art. Once again, curvilinear and moving feel of art. And very circular.
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