Sociology Week 2 Notes
Sociology Week 2 Notes SOCI2013
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Riley Goodman on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI2013 at University of Arkansas taught by Robert Mortenson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see General Sociology in Sociology at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Scientific Method Tuesday, January 26, 2016 1:03 PM Scientific Method: A systematic, Organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectively and consistency in researching a problem o Defining a problem: Operational definition: Explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow researchers to assess the concept o Reviewing the literature: Literature reviewed is relevant scholarly studies and information Refine the problem Clarify possible techniques for collecting data Eliminate or reduce avoidable mistakes o Formulating the hypothesis: Hypothesis: speculative statement about the relationship between two or more factors known as variables Variable: measurable trait or characteristic subject to change under different conditions Independent Variable: variable hypothesized to cause or influence another Dependent Variable: action depends on influence of the independent variable Causal logic: Involves relationships between a condition or variable and a particular consequence, with one event leading to the other Correlation: exists when change in one variable coincides with change in another Correlation does not necessarily indicate causation o Selecting the research design and collecting and analyzing data: Sample: selection from a larger population that is statistically typical of that population. Random sample: when every member of a population has the same chance of being selected Snowball or convenience samples: participants recruited through word of mouth or by posting notices on the internet. Ensuring Validity and Reliability: Validity: degree to which the measure reflects the phenomenon being studied Reliability: extent to which the measure provides consistent results o Developing the conclusion: Supporting Hypothesis: Sociological studies do not always generate data that support original hypothesis Controlling for Other Factors: Control Variable: factor held constant to test the impact of the independent variable Major Research Designs Tuesday, February 2, 2016 12:28 PM Research Design: Detailed plan or method for obtaining data scientifically Surveys: o Study that provides sociologists with info about how people act or think o Interview: Researcher obtains info through face to face o Quantitative research: collects and reports data primarily in numerical form o Qualitative research: relies on what is seen in field and naturalistic settings; often focuses on small groups and communities Ethnography: o Collecting info through direct participation and/ or by closely watching a group or community o Efforts to describe an entire social setting through extended systematic observation Observation: sociologist joins group to get accurate sense of how it operates; the basic technique of ethnography Experiments: o Artificially created situation that allows researchers to manipulate variables Experimental group: exposed to independent variable Control group: not exposed to independent variable Hawthorne effect: unintended influence of observers or experiments on subjects Existing sources: o Secondary analysis: research techniques that make use of previously collected and publically accessible info and data o Content analysis: systematic coding and objective recording of data, guided by some rationale Ethics and Statistics Tuesday, February 2, 2016 12:54 PM Ethics of research: o Code of Ethics (ASA. 1997) Maintain objectively and integrity in research Respect subjects right to privacy and dignity Protect subjects from personal harm Preserve confidentiality Seek informed consent Acknowledge collaboration and assistance Disclose sources of financial support Using Statistics and Graphs: o Using Stats: Percentage: shows portion of 100 Mean: average; sum of a series of values divided by the number of values Mode: most common value in a series Median: Midpoint of values in two groups with equal numbers of values o Reading Graphs: Tables and figures allow social scientists to display data and make it easier to develop conclusions Cross- Tabulations: shows relationships between the two
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