NUTRI 2000 Chapter 3 Notes
NUTRI 2000 Chapter 3 Notes Nutrition 2000
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Notetaker on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Nutrition 2000 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Katie Vines in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
NUTRITION BOOK NOTES: CHAPTER 3 Section 3.1 Nutrition’s role in human physiology Cells come to form tissue, tissues come to form organs, and organs come to from organ systems In all cells, chemical reactions occur, this is done so that new substances can be made (break down old, to make the new) In order for the cells in tissues to function properly, they need water, protein, minerals, and a steady supply of oxygen - They also need ATP (adenosine triphosphate) as their energy source, to function Section 3.2 The cell structure, function, and metabolism All living things are made up of a variety of cells that specialize to perform specific functions Organelles (the cell’s organ system) have specialized functions to do within each cell Cell/plasma membrane - The cell membrane is not an organelle, but it does hold all the things within the cell together - The cell membrane is semi permeable (lets some things in, and some things out, think of it as a gate keeper) - It has a phospholipid bilayer (the cell has two layers composed of fat, and phospholipids) - It contains cholesterol which provides stability to the cell - It contains proteins to provide structural supports, help with transport, and function as enzymes (which help the chemical processes) - It also contains carbohydrates (made of protein/fat which help send messages to the cell’s organelles) Cytoplasm - This is the fluid material and organelles within the cell (does NOT include the nucleus) - This is the main source of energy production in red blood cells, known as anaerobic (doesn’t use oxygen) Mitochondria - The “powerhouse” of the cell - Use the energy from food we eat, and convert it into a form in which cells can use o They get the energy from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats - This requires oxygen to produce energy, so it is called aerobic Cell nucleus - The “brain” of the cell - Contains genetic material (chromosomes, genes, DNA) that controls the actions occurring in the cell - Makes proteins through transcription and translation Endoplasmic reticulum - There are two types, rough and smooth - Rough ER contains ribosomes (ribosomes are used in making proteins) - Smooth ER makes lipids and breaks down any harmful chemicals in the cell Golgi complex - The “post office” of the cell - This is where proteins get packaged Lysosomes - This is the cell’s “digestive system” - It digests mainly worn out or damage cell parts Peroxisomes - Contain enzymes which detoxify any harmful chemicals - These are usually found in the liver if you drink alcohol, because alcohol is considered a “harmful chemical” - It contains an enzyme called catalase which prevents excessive hydrogen peroxide to be accumulated in the cell Cell metabolism - Metabolism is the chemical processes which maintain life - These reaction take place in the cell cytoplasm and organelles - The metabolism of fats, proteins, carbohydrates, and vitamins yields energy - The body converts energy which is found in food to ATP - There are two types of metabolic processes: anabolic and catabolic o Anabolic: needs energy (puts molecules together) o Catabolic: puts out energy (takes molecules apart) Section 3.3 Tissues There are 4 types of tissues found in the human body: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous Epithelial tissue: lines the outside of the body and external passages Connective tissue: holds different structure of the body together (it CONNECTS things) Muscle tissue: helps in contracting movement Nervous tissue: transport nerve impulses from one body part to another Section 3.4 Cardiovascular system System 1 that circulates fluids throughout the body (blood) Consists of heart and blood vessels The blood is composed of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, etc. The blood leave through arteries, and enters back in through veins Hepatic portal circulation is when blood gets passed through the liver via the hepatic portal vein, so that nutrients can get absorbed before they enter the main bloodstream Lymphatic system System 2 that circulates fluids throughout the body (lymph) Lymph consists of blood plasma and white blood cells The lymph fluid does not get “pumped” like blood, instead it moves through muscle contraction Lymph vessels pickup ad transports most fat digested/absorbed products Section 3.5 Urinary system Kidneys filter blood and removes waste from the body Urine is composed of water, urea, unneeded vitamins/minerals, and the waste that the kidneys filter out Helps in maintaining the pH level of blood Kidneyuretersbladderurethra Section 3.6 Nervous system The regulatory system which controls most of the body’s systems The neuron is the basic structural and functional unit of the nervous system - These respond to chemical and electrical signals, release chemical regulators, and conducts electrical impulses Synapses are the gaps between the neurons which is what converts a message into a chemical signal, which are called neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters: a chemical signals which stimulate the brain - Example: dopamine, serotonin, epinephrine, etc. Myelin sheath: fatty tissue which helps in speeding up the transmission process - When we are young, our reactions are late due to the myelin sheath just starting to form The nervous system is divided into two groups: central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) - CNS: includes the brain and spinal cord - PNS: the nerves that connect to everything else (organs, muscles, etc.) Section 3.7 The endocrine system The endocrine system regularizes your metabolism, reproduction, water balance, and other functions through producing and releasing hormones Hormones are the messengers of your body Insulin: is released from the pancreas to help control glucose levels in the blood Thyroid hormones: are released from the thyroid gland and helps controls the body’s metabolism. Glucagon: released from the pancreas to help the liver to convert glycogen to glucose Epinephrine/norepinephrine: also known as adrenaline, released from the adrenal gland and increases heart rate, blood pressure, muscle strength Growth hormone: released from the pituitary gland helps in growth of children and adolescents. Each hormone has a specific receptor protein to which it binds to: the target cells. Section 3.8 The immune system Cells all over the body (skin and intestinal) work with the cells over the immune system to defend the body against infection. Nonspecific immunity is when white blood cells protect your body against any kind of microorganism. Specific immunity happens when the nonspecific immunity cells are not able to catch the microorganism, so the specific immunity cells come in and destroy the microorganism instead. Antibodies/immunoglobulins are produced by the white blood cell that help control and prevent infection. Antigens are foreign proteins that you don’t want in your body, which causes the body to respond. If the skin or intestinal barrier is injured and your insides are exposed, then microorganisms can get inside and cause illness. Section 3.9 The digestive system The gastrointestinal tract is where the digestion and absorption of food takes place Mechanical and chemical digestion takes place in the digestive system - Mechanical digestion starts right when you start to chew your food and continues on when your stomach muscles mixes and moves the food - Chemical digestion starts when the enzymes and acids start to breakdown the food The mouth The mouth chews the food we put in it and also tastes it There are 5 types of flavors we taste: sour, sweet, salty, bitter, and umami Even before food is put in the mouth, our body senses it so we start to salivate Saliva is a solvent, which further separates and allows us to better taste food. It also contains digestive enzymes - Amylase is a starch digesting enzyme - Lipase is a fat digesting enzyme - Mucus is also in saliva (not an enzyme) which makes swallowing easier The esophagus The esophagus is a tube which connects the pharynx to the stomach This can be described as the transportation center The epiglottis is a flap of tissue that is near the pharynx, which prohibits the bolus of food you swallowed from entering your windpipe/air way (the trachea). Peristalsis is a series of muscle contraction which helps move the food down from the esophagus and through out. The lower esophageal sphincter is a muscle that closes after food enters the stomach to prevent backflow of the stuff you just ate. The stomach The stomach can hold up to 4-cups/1 quart of food for many hours until it enters the small intestine. When the food enters your stomach, it is mixed with gastric juices (contains enzymes, water, and hydrochloric acid). When the food is being mixed around in your stomach, chime (a watery food mixture) is released. The stomach contents will enter the small intestine after 1-4 hours The pyloric sphincter controls the amount of chime released into the small intestine. The stomach also produces a substance called the intrinsic factor which is necessary in order to digest vitamin B-12 The small intestine 1 inch in diameter and 10 feet long There are 3 parts to the small intestine - Duodenum is the first 10 inches where most of the chemical digestion happens - Jejunum is the 4 feet after the duodenum - Ileum is the 5 feet after the jejunum The lining of the small intestine has mucosa and villi (tiny fingerlike structures which always move) The villi are made up of absorptive cells, which are further folded into microvilli There are several ways the small intestine absorbs nutrients: - Passive diffusion is when the nutrient concentration is high in the lumen and low in the absorptive cells in the small intestine, this difference brings the nutrients into the absorptive cells through diffusion o Water, some minerals, and fats move are absorbed by this - Facilitated diffusion: when carrier proteins are required to follow a concentration gradient o Fructose uses this method - Active absorption needs a carrier protein along with an added energy input to move from the lumen to the absorptive cells. o Some sugars and amino acids are absorbed this was - Phagocytosis is when absorptive cells engulf compounds - Pinocytosis is when absorptive cells engulf liquids Most fats are absorbed into the lymph vessels and then emptied into the blood stream Cells of the small intestine cannot absorb undigested food. Undigested food, which does reach the small intestine, will go through the ileocecal sphincter (a ring of smooth muscle which prevents stuff from large intestine to get into the small intestine) before heading into the large intestine. Large intestine This is also known as the colon and can be divided into 5 parts: cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon. The large intestine has no digestive enzymes or villi like the small intestine; however, it does have mucus-producing cells. Here there are nutrients absorbed like water, vitamins, fatty acids, sodium, and potassium. Contains many bacteria which break down remaining food products further Probiotics are live microorganisms which are linked to good health and improving the health of the intestinal tract. Prebiotics are substances which increase the growth of probiotics Rectum This is where the feces is kept, until eliminated out through the anus The anus has and internal and external sphincter Accessory organs The gallbladder, liver, and pancreas are all considered as accessory organs because they work with the GI tract to help with digestion. These organs release fluids into the GI tract, which aid in the process of converting food into absorbable nutrients. Bile is a substance which is produced by the liver The gallbladder stores the bile until it gets the hormonal signal to release it Entherohepatic circulation is the process of recycling bile - The bile is reabsorbed from the small intestine and returned to the liver The pancreas manufactures the insulin and glucagon Section 3.10 Nutrient storage capabilities The body must reserve nutrients so we don’t have to constantly eat to get them Fat is stored in adipose tissue Carbohydrates are stored in the muscle and liver in the form of glycogen Vitamins and minerals are stored in the liver Glucose and amino acids are stored in the blood Section 3.11 Nutrition and genetics An epigenome is the way something is packaged and marked inside of a cell Epigenetics is the change in gene expression due to factors other than changes in DNA sequence The emerging field of nutritional genomics Nutritional genetics is the interaction and relation between genetics and nutrition. Nutrigenetics examines how the variations in genes can affect nutritional health. Nutrigenomics is how our diet affects gene expression - The current areas of research include: obesity, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, celiac disease, and Alzheimer’s Nutritional diseases with a genetic link Cardiovascular disease: high cholesterol can lead to cardiovascular disease - One in 500 people have the faulty gene where the cholesterol isn’t removed from their blood Obesity: often obese people have one obese parent, which means that it is genetically linked Diabetes: there 2 common types: type 1 and type 2, and both can be caused genetically Cancer: there are many types of cancer that are linked to genetics, like prostate, colon, or breast cancer You genetics profile You can get your genetic profiling done to see which of your ancestors had what and how it will effect you, or if it will effect you The testing costs up to $1000 Personalizing nutrition advice Genetic personalizing helps in determining which diet is the best for you Genetic tests are now available to up to 1500 diseases Nutrition and you health Heartburn Is also known as acid reflux, and many Americans experience it It happens when the stomach gasses back up into the esophagus When it reoccurs frequently, which is quite serious, it is called gastro esophageal reflux disease. People who get this will often take an antacid to reduce the acidity in their stomach, so if the acid backs up into the esophagus, it wont hurt as bad. Pregnancy and obesity can lead to this Ulcers Peptic ulcers occur when the lining of the stomach, esophagus, or small intestine, is taken over by acid which is secreted by the stomach cells Ulcers can cause pain, blood loss, and small holes About 4.5 million people are affected Weight loss, appetite loss, nausea, and vomiting are all symptoms of this This often occurs when people take certain medications, or ignore their “urges” This can be treated with an increase of fluid intake and staying active Constipation This is when the evacuation of the bowl becomes difficult due to the waste in the large intestine slowly moving Ignoring normal urges to go, can cause this along with eating too much white flour To prevent this, make sure to drink plenty of fluids and eat plenty of fiber Laxatives can also lessen constipation Hemorrhoids These can also be called piles, and are the swollen/inflamed veins that surround the rectum This can occur when there is unnecessary added pressure upon the rectum Symptoms of this are itching in the anal canal, bleeding, and pain Most adults over 50 develop this Irritable bowl syndrome This is quite common (25+ million adults have this), more common in younger women This sis when you have irregular bowl functions Symptoms include pain relief after bowl movement, increased stool frequency, mucus in the stool, etc Hard to find the cause of IBS, but it may be due to some hormones which regulate the movement of food through the GI tract A high fiber diet helps in fixing this problem, the fiber must be soluble because there have been problems with insoluble fibers A person with IBS should limit caffeine intake Diarrhea This typically lasts only a fe days Usually this is a result from infection in the intestine, which cause the cells to release fluids Drink a lot of water to get rid of this Gall stones These are little stones that are formed in your gallbladder, which leads to the removal of your gallbladder Symptoms are gas, nausea, bloating, or vomiting Celiac Disease Affects only about 1% of the US It is due to a protein called gluten , which is found in grains, wheat, rye, and barley It also causes mal absorption of nutrients, which over time can lead to fatigue, weight loss, infertility, and bone loss The only way to treat this is to eliminate gluten, which means no grains, wheat, rye, or barley
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