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CHEM 101

by: Aja givens

CHEM 101 CHEM 101

Aja givens
U of L

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About this Document

These notes begin to cover isotopes and different laws when it comes to atoms.
Structural Chemistry, with Application to Chemistry of the Elements
Dr. Franco
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aja givens on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 101 at University of Louisville taught by Dr. Franco in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Structural Chemistry, with Application to Chemistry of the Elements in Science at University of Louisville.

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Date Created: 02/03/16
Module 2 January 25-27, 2015 LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS : Matter cannot be destroyed or created in a chemical reaction reactant 1 + reactant 2  product total mass Example: Ca= 40.08 calcium oxide + carbon dioxide  calcium C= 12.01 carbonate O= 16 x 2 = CaO + CO2  CaCO3 56.08+44.01 100.0 g 32 DALTONS ATOMIC THEORY : all matter is made up of tiny, indivisible particles that are called atoms : atoms cannot be created, destroyed, or transformed in a chemical reaction : all atoms of a given element are identical : atoms combine in simple, whole number ratios to form compounds LAW OF DEFINITE PROPORTIONS : a compound is always made up of the same relative masses of the elements that compost it (ex- water always has 2 H atoms to ever one O atom, regardless of where the water comes from) CONCEPTS Atom: an atom is an electrically neutral, spherical entity composed of positively charged central nucleus, surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons Nucleus Protons: + (atomic number) Neutrons: neutral (isotope number) Electron Cloud Electron: - (continued January 27, 2015) The atom nucleus consists of protons and neutrons. Cloud contains electrons. : Protons: positively charged and have mass of 1.0073 amu (atomic mass units) : Neutrons: neutrally charged and have mass of 1.0087 amu : Electrons: negatively charged and have mass of 0.0005486 amu (1/1838 of mass of a proton) ELEMENTS : each element has a certain number of protons in the nucleus. *Protons give identity of the element* (refer to as Z) : elements in neutral form have neutral charge protons= electrons ISOTOPES A=atomic mass number : species with the same number of “how many p+ and n0 the protons but different mass. : they have the same symbol (represented by symbol X, indicating the atomic mass number (A) on the upper level and the atomic number located on lower left corner of element square) Example: H has 3 isotopes 1 1 H H h1=protium 1 A 1 X 1 Z A= p+ + n0  n0 = A –p+ H h2= For H: n0 = 2-1=1 deuterium 2 3 H 1 p+, 2 n0, 1 e- 1 H h3= tritium 1 3 SIDE NOTE: radioactivity: to many protons changes the element at some point so many protons that neutrons are needed. Because of large number the atom is unstable making it radioactive (Website: Z PERIODIC TABLE X mass # average mass of all isotopes Average mass= mass of h1 x abundance + mass h2 / abundance + mass h3 / abundance =1.008 Example: 16 17 18 O O O Atomic mass around 16 because most prominent of oxygen isotopes


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