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Week 1 notes

by: Maddy Moldenhauer

Week 1 notes Bio 309

Maddy Moldenhauer
GPA 3.9

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Diversity of the plant kingdom
Plants and Human Health
Elise C Hollister
Class Notes
Biology, plants, botany kingdom
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddy Moldenhauer on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 309 at Grand Valley State University taught by Elise C Hollister in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Plants and Human Health in Biology at Grand Valley State University.


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Date Created: 02/03/16
BIO 309 Plants and Human Health – Professor Hollister  Lecture 4  “Diversity in The Plant Kingdom”  Part Two  Study Questions 1. Why are the gymnosperms referred to as naked seeds? The seeds are exposed at maturity and are considered "naked". 2. What are the four phyla (common names are okay for ¾) that comprise the  gymnosperms? Cycadophyta, Ginkophyta, Coniferophyta, Gnetophyta 3. Of the gymnosperms: Which phylum is the most diverse? Coniferophyta The  one with only one living species? Coniferophyta The most important  economically? Coniferophyta Gives us one of the most popular herbal remedies in the US? Gnetophyta Which phylum provides a potent anti­cancer drug?  Coniferophyta  4. What is one the most popular selling herbal remedies in the United States?   What does it claim to do? Ginkgo biloba is used as a drug to enhance memory or delay the onset of dementia. 5. What is the oldest living organism on the earth? Bristle cone pine (Coniferophyta)  6. What is the tallest living organism on the earth? Sequoia (Coniferophyta) 7. What is the major characteristic that separates angiosperms from  gymnosperms? Angiosperms are flowering plants  8. What are other unique characteristics of angiosperms? Ovules are covered, may be in the form of fruit (protective) 9. What is the most diverse group of plants in the Plant kingdom? Angiosperms are the most plentiful  10. What are the two main groups of plants that comprise the Angiosperms? Monocot and Dicot  11. What are the several main/obvious differences between monocots and dicots? The differences are in the vascular bundle arrangement within the plant. Monocots  (Herbaceous) have an unarranged/scattered/unorganized vascular arrangement, while  dicots (woody or herbaceous) have their vascular system arranged in a circle in a  more orderly pattern.  12. Can you draw and label all the parts of a flower? 13. What is pollination?  How does it differ from fertilization? Pollination is the process of delivering the male gametophyte (pollen grain) from the  anther to the female gametophyte (egg) in the stigma through wind dispersal.  Fertilization is the process of the male gamete fusing with the female gamete. 14. Can a plant be pollinated yet not get fertilized? It is possible to plan may be pollinated, but not give her the last. After a plan is  pollinated, environmental circumstances may prevent fertilization or the pollen  dispersed on the stigma may be sexually incompatible. Pollination fertilization are  two completely different processes.            15. What is double fertilization? The fertilization process of flowering plants in which one sperm cell from the pollen  grain fertilizes a female egg while the other sperm cell fuzes with the two polar nuclei to produce a triploid body (3n) that gives rise to the endosperm. 16. What are the two products of double fertilization?   A fertilized egg (embryo) and endosperm 17. How is endosperm produced? During double fertilization, when the second sperm cell fuses with the two politically  a triploid body (3n) that gives rise to the endosperm. 18. What is the ploidy level of endosperm?  3n What does endosperm do? It gives nutrients to the developing embryo. 19. What is mutualism?  What group of plants best epitomizes mutualism? Mutualism is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in  which each individual benefits from the activity of the other. The angiosperms. 20. From what part of the flower is the pericarp derived? The part of the fruit that has developed from the wall of the ripened ovary. 21. Can you explain some specific examples of angiosperm pollination (ie: a  butterfly would likely pollinate what types of flowers)? Bees: attracted to yellow, blue, purple flowers Birds: attracted to red flowers (Ex. Hummingbirds) Bats/Moths: attracted to white or light­colored flowers due to their night pollination Flies: attracted to strongly scented flowers  22. Are you familiar with the generalized plant life cycle?­26­03­03.png


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