Modern US since 1974 - HIS 468 - Part 1
Modern US since 1974 - HIS 468 - Part 1 HIS 468
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenifer on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 468 at University of Kentucky taught by David E Hamilton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Modern United States since 1974 in History at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Modern US since 1974 HIS 468 Notes up to Week Three Introduction: This is mostly surrounding the political, diplomatic and economic developments in contemporary history Whig party believed they were part of shape or destiny; associated with Karl Marx Controversy, predictions/interpretations of eventual inevitable destiny, based on historical events compared to the present Can be connected to political/ideological agendas “inevitability of capitalism or marketing crises” Shapes some aspects of historical interpretations Associated with lessons of the world learned through the study of history Munich analogy: meeting between Chamberlain and Hitler, or the appeasement of Hitler to prevent an outbreak of war; appeasements ineffective since Hitler kept antagonizing other countries for more territory, leading to WW2 As the previous is specific, it can be argued that it can’t be used to simplify “lessons” of world history Some events that influenced this time period: Vietnam conflict soured desire for intervention; US engaged halfheartedly Partisan furor American politics Watergate crisis, leads to appointment of Ford after Nixon resigns Oil/energy crisis connected to instability of the Middle East American military and foreign policies Stagflation: difficulty to control inflation; facing both recession and unemployment; inflation/stagflation ceases to be a major problem in the ‘80s Historical developments are contingent; political policies, economy, etc. Values have been contested throughout history, and at the heart of most conflicts. Alien and Sedition Acts: Regarded immigration and the supposed danger of noncitizens Went against first amendment Was a product of the intense fear of outsiders and foreigners in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries There was a major dislike of Catholics and the Irish Irish Catholicism was considered a threat to American society There was tension in American society with outsiders in the nineteenth century Influx of foreigners and immigration was followed by the west coast’s limitation of Asian immigrants Humanitarians brought up issues of refugees and antisemitism Chinese wall proposal and the KKK of the ‘20s, associated with white supremacy and protestant Christians Deportation of Mexicans during the Great Depression to improve job prospects for other citizens with full legal status WW2 led to relocation of Japanese citizens and residents to live in specialized camps Pluralism: The ease of naturalization acts for more people and more workers Fourteenth Amendment: If you’re born in the US then you’re a citizen; this didn’t stop the matter from being contested during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries The 1960s allowed Soviet refugees to take asylum in the US during the Cold War, after a new document on foreign policy was signed by president Johnson; changed how immigration was affected later on Events leading up to 1974: Presidents preceding Nixon: Roosevelt (‘33’45), reshaped the way the presidency was handled Succeeded by Harry Truman (‘45’48) Eisenhower (‘53’60), was involved in WW2, and highly respected because of his military achievements in the conflict; was reelected in 1956 Kennedy (‘60’63), involved in the Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis; assassinated in ‘63 Succeeded by Johnson (‘64’68) Nixon began office in 1968, known for the Watergate crisis and resignation Other political players: McCarthy: “Red Scare” of communism Thurman: Challenged Truman in ‘46 Stevenson: Challenger to Eisenhower 1968 was known for being a traumatic and influential year. Herbert Humphrey Kennedy’s brother, RFK, was assassinated Johnson’s VP went for the presidency Martin Luther King Jr assassinated The fall of Berlin to the allies, were it was split in half. West Berlin went to the US, along with west Germany East Berlin went to the newly formed USSR, along with east Germany The formation of the Iron Curtain, and the beginnings of the Cold War This period began in ‘47 Wars occurring in Korea (‘50s) and Vietnam (‘60s) Wars of nuclear power after this presents fear of possible holocaust and complete genocide out of the conflict of the Cold War Domestic changes in the US: Economic growth: Capitalism and a mixed economy from both the government and the market There was a sustained economic stability ranging from ‘45 ‘74 Largest boom; unprecedented for such a stretch of time A broad base that was shared by citizens, “Great Compression”; the levelling of income and wealth; shortening the gap between the classes Lead to more spending for luxury items or services; education, cars, tvs, etc Poverty was still widespread in more remote regions, such as the Appalachians America became a consumption based economy in the wake of the consumer economy revolution from the ‘40s onward Population growth: Twentieth century began with smaller families during the war and interwar periods The late ‘40s brough larger families, known as the boomer generation Beginning of domestic security, such as social security, life and health insurance, etc Demographic consequences came out of this Suburbanization of American life; citizens became more mobile de to affluence, prosperity and growth Upward and geographical mobility: Regional balance of life changed to incorporate material prosperity Reversed the effect of the Great Depression “Grand Expectations” 1945 1974 Optimism that the nation can prevail in the Cold War Material gain and comfort; sense of limitlessness Development of a more Democratic nation Patterson calls a “Right Revolution” New consciousness of rights Economic and legal influence of citizens over affirmative action such as women’s rights The student movement and a counter culture to challenge the traditional morality 1970s: The Right Revolution was considered Inspiring and Unrealistic for sustained economic growth. New social tensions and conflicts sprung up between conservatives and those who embraced change. 1940s: America was a divisive nation 1952: More moderate politics happened; Eisenhower known for moderation, centralism and liberal consensus 1960: Kennedy against Nixon; how to handle the Cold War and prevent a nuclear disaster 1963 1965: “Great Society”, Lyndon Johnson Issues of segregation and the Civil Rights Movement Expanding social protections and a more active government 1968: Vietnam War consequences, for example the mobs and riots in Chicago American Politics until the 1970s: Rights revolutions, backlash from it and the effects of the wars, disgruntlement of the people Foreign Policy: Nixon’s triumphs become overshadowed by the Watergate crisis, which brings turmoil American war with China in the ‘50s Nixon visits China, and the Soviet Union in Moscow SALT Arms Race issues with the USSR in terms of who has better missiles and rocketry Trade and economic treaties Scaling down number of forces present in the Vietnam War Known as Détente Secretary of State was Kissinger Nixon planned to make the Cold War less threatening, to normalize relations with the USSR, instead of allowing the rivalry to continue Not friendly, but more civil with each other, without seeming to retreat or surrender 1970 1971: Tragic consequences in withdrawal from Vietnam; siege mentality brings about Watergate crisis Realism and foreign policy should accept the reality rather than in an idealistic viewpoint Nixon rode success into second term until ‘74 Détente became controversial; despised by conservatives Buckley Movement launched for human rights, against Soviet Union’s possible access to nuclear weapons through foreign policy Some factions claimed that America had overextended itself CIA operations after WW2 apparently left unchecked Limits to national power; costs, economy, etc OPEC Embargo of oil, Oil Crisis PLO, early ‘70s “International Terrorism” ‘72 Instability in multiple facets of society Interdependent and interconnected world Globalization of American society and economy WW2, ‘70s term: Internationalism Prior term was “detachment” or “Unilateralism” “Multilateralism”, or interstate community Woodrow Wilson and 14 points against Treaty of Versailles and the Peace Treaty in Paris after WW1 For autonomy rather than controlling imperialist territories, “undermining democracy” Self determinism, or collective security Supranational/Transnational institutions, eg. League of Nations Criticisms about loss of autonomy to the League prevented US from joining After WW2: ‘70s dominated by the Cold War Shift from colonization to decolonization Loss of imperialism Some loss of territory leading to conflicts International economy: Investment in foreign markets as well as domestic Globalization, economic growth and instabilities Great Depression: Deglobalization, tariffs, and trade blocks Devaluation of currency, loss of the gold standard Bretton Woods: 1944, rebuilding post war economy IMF World Bank GATT, 1974; became WTO American centered, based in DC Dollar denomination of gold standard Removal of gold standard in the mid ‘70s Human rights: Human Rights Charter; Declaration of Human Rights Written out by the UN Franklin Roosevelt was for “freedoms” UN, etc “Grand expectations” of US in post war era Cold War Europe and the US: Warsaw Pact: Trails along the Iron Curtain Alliance established by USSR, known as the Eastern Block; tied to the Union Brutal, heavyhanded power Crises in Berlin in ‘47 ‘61; tensions end with Wall in ‘61; removed in ‘90 Stalin and Mao Zedong Communist dictators Malkenov took over from Stalin Korean War: 1950s, invasion of South by North Ended in ‘54 China became involved when the US started a full invasion of North Korea Eventually Korea was divided by the 38th parallel Vietnam War: Divided by the 17th parallel Territory started out as French Indochina Roosevelt afraid America would retreat from world affairs after WW2: Helped rebuild West Germany and Japan, rebuilding economies Marshall plan; containing USSR’s already controlled border Left room for capitalism Interventions made by the US in the ‘60s and ‘70s Sent lease aid Stalin’s intentions for the Cold War: Claim Eastern Europe Gain more security for controlled areas Marshall: Army Chief of Staff Secretary of State Marshall plan; sent $15 billion in aid to Europe Common market in Europe became the Euro ‘46 ‘47: Greek and Turkish insurgencies Truman Doctrine; Containment Doctrine Problems in wording of the Doctrine Perceived threats taken on as obligations Moral complications to Doctrine: less rights to “free people” from repressive leaders NATO formed in 1948 1949: China fails due to internal struggles USSR allies with China China becomes communist Arms Race: “Limited War” Race of munitions of nuclear warheads and missiles American government tried to prevent it from escalating Expanded military: Security state Formation of the CIA in ‘47 Formation of the NSC and the NSA Foreign and security policies and covert operations were taken on by the CIA Huge presidential power over foreign policy from the ‘40s to the ‘60s Do the ends justify the means? Submarines, bombs and landmines were the triad for security Eisenhower: Expanded Cold War (to Globalize it); contain it “Monolithic” Domino Effect/ Domino Theory with Communism budget in terms of transporting land armies Covert CIA operations Cuban missile Crisis Vietnam War caused discontent in America for the Cold War The CIA wasn’t permitted to spy on domestic activity, since that was the role of the FBI
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