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Book Notes for Week 2

by: Amy Notetaker

Book Notes for Week 2 REHB 126 - C01

Amy Notetaker
GPA 3.8
Introduction to Rehabilitation and Human Services
Dr. Jennifer May

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About this Document

This is just some of the info that I found in the book to be significant that will give a better understanding of the material.
Introduction to Rehabilitation and Human Services
Dr. Jennifer May
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Notetaker on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to REHB 126 - C01 at Clarion University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Jennifer May in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Rehabilitation and Human Services in Rehabilitation at Clarion University of Pennsylvania.


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Date Created: 02/03/16
REHB Chapter 2 In Book Notes 60 Early History A Summary gt gt People believed that mental illness was caused by evil spirits Hippocrates a physician said it was a function of natural illness and mental iHness His contributions are meanchoia and epilepsy After 150039s government increased and lead to con ict between church and state People with mental impairments formed two categories naturaI foos or idiots Idiots became the preferred term which included people with retarded intellectual development that was permanent present at birth or both Those who were non compos mentis was for all other mental disabilities by 15th century unatic replaced non compos mentis It was the King39s duty to protect an idiot39s Iands Hospitals provided medical assistance to the ill but also fed and housed tired travelers orphans elderly and the poor Insane asyum was established in Europe15th and 16th centuries which had some concern for people with mental illness but it did not give effective treatment and the living conditions were poor In England the pressures of the poor in cities created the need for the passage of the Elizabethan Poor Law of 1601 This guided social welfare practices in England and the United States by specifying who was to provide what services to those in need 0 Parents were responsible for children and grandchildren whereas children were responsible for the support of parents and grandparents It had 3 main features 0 Taxation to raise funds to help the needy o Dependents were classi ed according to their ability to work 0 Responsibility for the sick the poor and others in need rested rst with the family and if it was impossible for them then the government would step in In 1792 Philippe Pinel created rst revolution in mental health by unchaining 50 maniacs at Biccetre Hospital in Paris kt Human Services in the United States Colonial America gt Poor relief is based off of the Elizabethan Poor Law of 1601 by 4 principles That the public is responsible for poor relief Legal residence Family members had a responsibility to needy individuals Children in need of a home would go to farmers or artisans that agreed to care for them gt Colonies developed institutions First almshouse was built in Massachusetts in 1662 for mentally ill elderly children ablebodied poor those with physical disabilities and criminals As the need arose they needed to have larger governmental units for the quotstate poorquot so by the early 180039s they developed district workhouses which didn39t help poor conditions Benjamin Franklin established the rst formal institutions for people who had mental disturbances A section of the Pennsylvania Hospital and at Williamsburg Virginia opened up to the mentally ill meanwhile a lot of people still looked at it as a social problem rather than a medical one kt The 19th Century A Time of Change gt Poverty was the individual39s fault and that if given public aid it would encourage poverty Poor Law Reform Bill of 1834 limited the expansion of services provided to the poor Designed the concept of quotless eligibilityquot which brought other social philosophies oz Social Philosophies gt By 19th century people followed the individualism philosophy which meant those who failed should be held responsible Brought on the concept laissezfaire which meant the best government was the one that governed the least Those who believed in social Darwinism stated that the ttest would survive so the supporters of it called for a repeal of poor laws and state supported human services that facilitated the un t This lead to the private sector coming together to support institutions and there was a growing demand for public agencies to assume more responsibility 60 Probation gt In 1813 Judge Peter O Thatcher of Boston began placing youthful offenders under the supervision of officials John Augustus started quotfriendly supervisionquot which was helped unfortunate people by bailing them out sometimes paying their nes and then providing quotfriendly supervisionquot William Booth created Salvation Army which provides assistance to ex convicts Prison Gate Brigade met with prisoners and provided assistance for a home food and employment 60 Treatment of People with Mental Illness gt Dr Benjamin Rush took mental illness to a scienti c level that introduced therapy exercises and amusements to patients instead of abuse like others gt Between 1843 and 1853 are called quotdecade of victoryquot because Dorothea Dix was personally responsible for founding state hospitals in nine states gt 1854 US congress declared nancial care of mental illness a state responsibility Late 19th century mental disorders were classi ed into two groups 0 Organic brain disturbance o No apparent physical causepsychogenetic oz Child Welfare gt Children were most vulnerable and after 183039s there was a demand to remove them from almshouses 0 Reform Movements gt Immigration from abroad and migration towards urban areas brought on The Organized Charity Movement which tried to eliminate fraud or duplication in the provision of services The Settlement House Movement was a reaction towards Organized Charity Movement which supported the opposite Settlement House movement wanted adequate housing better schools the abolition of child labor and an end to sweatshops which was achieved through social engineering kt Early 20th Century New Directions gt Early 190039s was the sociological era which named the workers of Settlement House and Charity Organization Society the rst social workers Their role was the belief that such people needed speci c skills knowledge and understanding to work effectively with the poor gt The quotmuckrakers criticized the wealthy because they believed it was caused by social and economic conditions and said poverty prevented people from reaching their potential oz Seeds of Mental Health Movement gt Clifford Beers was a victim of abuse after being con ned because he suffered from a mental illness He went on writing quotA Mind that Found itself founded the Connecticut Society for Mental Hygiene and proposed a national society which is now known as Mental Health Association The aim was to improve the knowledge on mental illness and mental hospital conditions 0 v Increased Federal Involvement gt Roosevelt39s New Deal Legislation changed the role of human services To provide shortterm aid to those who were unemployed Created 2 work relief programs Works Progress AdministrationWPA and the Civilian Conservation CorpsCCC Provided the enactment of Social Security Act of 1935 Believed America had the right to have protection from economic instability Provided assistance in social insurance public assistance and health and welfare services kt Mid20th Century Focus on Mental Health gt National Mental Health Act of 1946 created a Mental Hygiene Division within the US Public Health Service and a center for information and research which later became the National Institute for Mental Health NIMH gt Mental Health Study Act of 1955 which gave funding for a Joint Commission on Mental Illness and Health which ended up giving a lot of recommendations that became the law oz Serving Those in Need gt Community Mental Health Centers Act of 1963 provided services gt Scheuer Sub Professional Career Act of 1966 was for minority groups to provide effective mental health services Programs were developed for training gt PresidentJohnson developed programs in the war on poverty like VISTA Neighborhood Youth Corps Job Corps College Work Study and Head Start where the objective was to eradicate poverty by improving economic conditions Medicare came about and provided health insurance for people over 65 and Medicaid gives grants to states to help indigent citizens receive medical and hospital care kt Human Service Movement gt Deinstitutionalization began in the 19505 gt Two Organization were instrumental in the move toward a human service profession National Organization for Human ServicesNOHS and Council for Standards in Human Service EducationCSHSE both are working with Center for Credentialing and EducationCCE to establish a credential for human service practitioners oz Late 20th Century Revising The Social Welfare System gt 1968 Nixon started New Federalism which had individuals to assume responsibility for their own situations Families should use aid as they determined best Supplemental Security lncomeSS provided additional assistance kt Dismantling The Welfare System gt Proposition 13 was created to amend the property tax structure which involved less money going to funding social services Fewer professionals employed and the ones that were had bigger caseloads gt When Reagan got in of ce he cut spending and services like AFDC childcare school lunch alcohol and abuse counseling legal aid Job Corps etc Poverty rose and in 1988 The Family Support Act was signed which authorized JOBS program It required single parents on welfare with children older than 3 to work or get training to receive assistance child support got altered and one year of support and transportation for parents working or in training Bush in 1990 passed the Americans with Disabilities ActADA which got people working who couldn39t kt Welfare Reform gt Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act PRWORA replaced Aid to Families with Dependent Children oz Policies and Procedures gt States received a xed federal grant known as TANF or Temporary Assistance to Needy Families It allowed for some exibility but they must contribute towards the welfare program As a result of the economic downturn federal gov authorized the Emergency Contingency Fund as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 which gave bene ts to those in need but you had to comply with 4 statutory purposes of TANF Provide assistance to children in home or in homes of relatives promote job preparation work and marriage reduce wedlock and pregnancy encourage formation or maintenance of two parent famin kt Legislative Changes in the let Century gt The Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003MMA provided outpatient prescription drug bene ts for individuals on Medicare This plan replaces Medicaid as a source of drug coverage but also has regulations that cause problems for consumers and customers gt President George W Bush created Centers for Faithbased and Community nitiativesCFBC in 11 federal agencies which was to better utilize faith based and community based organizations


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