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Week 3 HNR 247 Lecture notes

by: Julia Dang

Week 3 HNR 247 Lecture notes HNR 247

Marketplace > Grand Valley State University > OTHER > HNR 247 > Week 3 HNR 247 Lecture notes
Julia Dang
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About this Document

These are the notes for lecture on 1/26 and 1/28/16
Molecules of Life in Perspective
Dr Debra Burg
Class Notes
HNR 247, Molecules of Life, Science
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Dang on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HNR 247 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr Debra Burg in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Molecules of Life in Perspective in OTHER at Grand Valley State University.


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Date Created: 02/03/16
Lecture 5 1-26-16 HNR 247 A.Metabolism a. Catabolism: Breaking down  Polymer to monomer.  Release energy + generate monomers  Breaks down food to get energy or whatever the cells need. b. Anabolism: Building up.  Going from monomer to polymer  Need energy (to help form bonds) + Monomers c. With Energy: 1. Use it directly. 2. Generate heat a. Whatever you don’t store, you’re using it as heat. 3. Store as ATP a. It’s necessary so that you can have a continuous supply of energy.  Slowing down the process is important. d. ATP is a molecule used to store energy  You need to use a lot of energy to make the bonds, if you want to get energy back, you break the bonds, which requires enzymes.  ATP shifts back and forth from ADP 1. ATP has 3 phosphates and ADP has 2. 2. If you want to go from ADP  ATP you need to add a phosphate and vise versa. e. Heat unfolds a protein because:  Heat breaks bonds. f. Linear pathways vs branch pathways  Branch have a benefit because you can make two products. 1. If you shut off the whole pathway, you couldn’t make the second product. 2. The amount of product is determined by inhibiting and if there’s product feedback to turn the production back on when it’s running low. CHAPTER 2  Nucleotide= base+ sugar + Phosphate  When something ends in “ase” it’s an enzyme.  DNA Polymerase work to pull in new monomers to link them together and form the DNA  Base pairing A-T and G-C o The orientation really matters. They can only be together in one particular way. o A-T has two bonds : these are easier to pull apart. o G-C has three bonds : this one is stronger. o Lecture 6 1-28-16 HNR 247 DNA (two separate events. One can happen without the other) 1. Replicate for cell division 2. Use info (code) to make new proteins a. Transcription b. Translation Cells that divide:  Skin cells  Hematopoietic cells = red blood cell; white blood cells.  Cells of the mucosa (like the inside of your mouth, your intestines, your tracts and whatnot)  Hair follicle cells -Purpose of having unique receptors is to bind with something specific and signals are sent step wise into the cell and there are proteins called the transcription factors. They’re normally just in the cytoplasm and then it flips the switch to gene expressions and sends the signal to the nucleus. Promoter: DNA sequence where TF bind to turn on transcription. Constitutive: always being made/expressed.  Constantly reading the code  Always need the gene to be available. Inducible: are turned on as needed. -Promoter is where TF bind. All promoters have to be binded to start making proteins. - TF bind to promoter. Why do we need RNA:  It’s the “central dogma”  Make DNA from RNA -With a cell, transcription is happening in the DNA and in the cytoplasm, there’s translation. To preserve the DNA, the RNA is made as a code to transfer info. -The mRNA is the code for one gene- the m stands for messanger  Gets shipped out and you have to figure out what amino acids to use to make the protein. tRNA- t means translator. Looks at the code and sees what amino acid you need rRNA: ribosomal RNA -Stability matters -RNAase- an enzyme that would end up chewing up the RNA, or you can use something to protect it. Ribosomes helps make the bonds between the amino acids.


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