ENG 261 notes week 3
ENG 261 notes week 3 11488 - ENG 261 - 02
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Dang on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 11488 - ENG 261 - 02 at Grand Valley State University taught by Colleen Brice in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Language Study in Foreign Language at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
ENG 261 12116 12616 1 Mental grammar Real grammar rules in our minds that enable us to create an in nite number of grammatical utterances in our rst language and never make a mistake a Re ect or equal our linguistic competence UG b In English adjectives of size precede adjectives of color c Your subconscious linguistic competence that allows you to create in nite grammatical utterance 2 Descriptive grammar The same as mental grammar but it describes what the real rules are that govern a language by consulting a native speaker a People who write these rules are linguists b They re sound rules how people articulate the sound how people make new words what af xes are aloud what sentence structures are okay c Linguists descriptions of the REAL mental grammar rules in speakers minds that enable them to create an in nite number of grammatical sentences and never make an error Description of people s linguistic competence UG This is subconscious e Describes the rules that govern how people DO use the language they re not looking to change anything f Example of a rule In English attributive adjectives of size precede those of color the big red balloon vs the red big balloon Q 3 Prescriptive grammar Grammar rules that impose a value judgment and try to change the way people use language to conform to someone s idea of educated good proper language use a Use object case for objects direct indirect oblique ike to whom b Intends to correct bad language use to make person sound educated c Based on the edited standard written language based on someone s idea of it being proper which happens to be everyone that has money and is in power d How you should use language according to someone s view of proper e Example of a rule never end a sentence in a preposition 4 The problem with the idea of languages and dialects and they way the interact is that people thing that sprouting from a language are dialects but in REALITY the language is composed of all the dialects and there is one particular one that is considered to be the Standard language Dialect Variety that is characterized by grammar and vocabulary ln linguistics dialect variety language Accent characterized by the pronunciation features imm 8 Dialect vs Language a Mutual intelligibility is the idea that if you can understand each other without much dif culty you re speaking the same language i This is NOT accurate criterion ii Siberian and Croatian are mutual intelligible but they re different languages iii At the same time if you speak Chinese in one region you might not understand the Chinese of the other regions b It s difficult because things gradually change and it s like a continuum c There s no such thing as language without dialect 9 Standard Variety most widelyunderstood and accepted variety of a language free of regional or social class markers viewed as authoritative rulegovern Most easily seen in print Used by news media Related social class and level of education Praised to standardness for social and political purposes goom 10 Nonstandard VarietiesAnythingvariety other than the standard Examples African American English Appalachian Equally governed by complex rules of grammar as standard varieties just some of these rules are different 0399
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