Arkansas Tech University
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Thornton on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1014-004 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Blake Whitt in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Intro to biological sciences in Biology at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Chapter 4 Notes Inheritance, Genes, and Physical Characteristics o Diseases and Genes Genes o Science making significant advances in understanding genes the hereditary units consisting of DNA o Genes contain the instructions on how to make a protein. Case Study: Sickle Cell Disease, Malaria and Human Evolution. o Tony Allison o The parasite is a protozoan that once injected into humans will reside in the red blood cells. o Received medical degree in England and returned to Kenya 1949. o Inherited disease where red blood cells appear sickle shaped, more than 20% of individuals living near water. o Interested in determining if there was a relationship between the possession of the sickle cell trait and resistance to malaria. o 3 studies led to the conclusion that the possession of the sickle cell trait afforded some protection against malaria. Sickle Cell Disease o Is the most common inherited blood disorder in the US. o Normal red blood cells are flexible, sickle cell cells are not. o Once hbA gives up its oxygen it goes back to its normal shape o Once hpS gives up its oxygen I forms long fibers. o Inheriting hbA means you will NOT get sickle cell. o Inheriting a copy of hbA and one of hbS means you are a carrier of the disorder. Molecular Medicine and Sickle Cell Disease? o Linus Pauling Studying sca and hbA and hbS. He was able to show that one could trace the cause of a disease to a variation in the structure of a protein. Pauling argued that because sickle cell disease was inherited, genes must determine the structures of proteins READ PAGE 98!! Electrophoresis Where is our genetic information stored? o Many tried to explain how heredity worked. o One was pangenesis, an idea that each part of the body produced a characteristic seed that traveled to the reproductive organs. This was debunked in the 1980’s. Mendel and the Rules of Inheritance o Gregor Mendel was also interested in pattern of inheritance and began some experiments at the monastery. Simple Dominance in a Monohybrid Cross o p – purple o p – white o in simple dominance the presence of a dominant allele masks the recessive. o Phenotypic Ratio 3:1 Mendel and the Rules of Inheritance o Mendel’s research revealed much of the basic info about inheritance. Genes can come in multiple forms (alleles) Genes do not always affect just one characteristic Gene expression depends on the environment. Epistasis o Continuous variation o Many genes for one trait o The greater the number of genes…more variation. Pleiotropy o Single gene effects two or more phenotypes. Marfan syndrome fBN1 gene Cystic fibrosis Sickle cell anemia How much do Mendel’s Rules Explain? Gene Expression depends on the environment o Flowers of hydrangea will vary depending on the acidity of the soil. o Carp are a slender fish if they develop in the absence of predators. If they are present, body shape changes. Chromosome Structure o DNA – hereditary genetic material twisted into a doublehelix shape o Histone spool like protein that DNA wraps around to further condense its structure. o Organizes the shape of the chromosome.