Developmental Psychology PSYC 3206
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Notetaker on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3206 at East Carolina University taught by Gary Stainback in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Developmental Psychology February 3 Lecture Home or Hospital Births o Identify the pros and cons for childbirth to take place in the home rather than hospital o How can hospitals imitate the home birthing experiencing? o Physician/midwife/doula Prepared childbirth o Discuss the benefits of Lamaze training Teaches you control and breathing Helping you find a focal point to associate with relaxation and train yourself so you can use it during childbirth Teaches you what will be happening through your pregnancy- preparing you for what the hospital will be like o One of the biggest issues women have with pregnancy is fear Because of this our muscles tense Women feel fear often because of stories, movies, and just the fact that they don’t know exactly what to expect There is a vicious cycle that goes along with this. As contractions and other things begin the woman experiences pain, which brings fear, the fear in turn creates tension which itself makes the experience more painful. So by practicing relaxation and teaching women what to expect it helps break this cycle. Childbirth monitoring o Fetal heart monitors External Monitors the mother’s heart rate and ensures that there is no issues with her vitals while giving birth Internal As the baby’s head begins to crown they stick the wire to the child’s head and can monitor the child’s heart rate and all of the contractions and make sure nothing is wrong o Also gives evidence of contractions (strength) Baseline Fetal Heart Rate o Fetal heart rate monitoring is used to help determine fetal well being o Reactive strip- good fetal well being o Reactive strip Long term variability Accelerations An increase in the baseline of the fetal heartrate Must be at least 15 beats above baseline and last for at least 15 seconds No decelerations o Assess entire picture Cost of Childbirth o Estimate the cost for childbirth Vaginal birth cost $9000 - $17000 Cesarean birth (C-section) $14000- $25000 With health insurance, costs range $500 - $3000 2009 national averages $9617 for vaginal delivery with no complications Childbirth experiences o Discuss with your parents what it was like for you childbirth, or anyone you know. o What was their childbirths like? Were they born in the hospital, home, vehicle (couldn’t make it to the hospital in time). o How long was labor? o Were other family members present during the birth? o Medicated, spinal block? An anesthesiologist will put a numbing medication into the spinal column to numb the lower area of the body (the part having contractions). They can still sense pressure but will no longer be feeling any pain. One of the issues with this is it will keep them numb for 14-24 hours after, which isn’t always a bad thing for some women. This is also known as an epidural Placenta o What to do with the placenta? Placenta therapy Sometimes the placenta is freeze dried and made into capsules (like vitamin pills) that the mother can then take after childbirth. This has been linked to reducing post- partum depression Placenta Art Yes, this is what it sounds like. Some people take the placenta and make art and hang it in their home…. Not judging… but that could be kinda gross. Cord Blood o A banking mechanism. This blood can be saved and used for medical purposes later or for research. You can look at your family history and if you feel the children may benefit from having this later (if there is a history of certain illnesses, etc.) then it can be saved for them in case they ever needed it. Infant Appearance o Average size of newborn? 20 inches in length, 7.5 lbs 5.5 to 10 lbs is considered normal Boys tend to be slightly longer and heavier However we are seeing a change in this trend o Newborns will have a soft spot on the top of their head This is where the skull has not fully fused together yet. The head of a child is about 25% of their body weight and grows at a slower rate, so as they grow their body will begin to catch up (this is why you must always hold a baby supporting its head). o Why is the newborn so reddish in color? Because their skin is still extremely thin and there is no fat buildup yet. This will come once they begin breastfeeding and taking in more nutrients o My grandmother told me my child has Witch’s Milk! What the heck is that? Right before birth a female’s estrogen levels skyrocket and the baby will absorb some of this, because of this the baby (in the breast area) will have a slight discharge of a milky substance (this can happen in males or females). o What’s that oily stuff on my baby? It is a barrier protection and acts as a lubricant to help the baby come through the vaginal canal (the body naturally produces this) Infants in the Home o Where will your baby sleep after he/she comes from the hospital? This varies depending on culture but in the American culture the baby often sleeps in a bassinet in their parent’s room. But, it really just depends on the parents, some keep them in a separate room, some have them sleep in a play pen. However, a baby will only sleep for about 2 hours at a time so having the baby in the room is more convenient for some parents so they don’t have to walk as far to comfort the baby when it wakes o Discuss the practice of having the infant sleeping in the same bed as parent(s). This is good because it can be comforting to both the baby and the parents, however it is an extremely hard habit to break once it is started. It is good for bonding but very bad for the child developing independence It is also very dangerous because a parent could roll over in their sleep and smother the baby without even knowing A baby needs to sleep in a very safe place, without a lot of blankets or pillows or things they could potentially be smothered by. They are usually just wrapped up so they are warm and placed in an empty area (no stuffed animals or anything that could potentially block their air way if they were to roll over). They should be laying on their back and no other way because they don’t have the strength to roll themselves over if they are unable to breathe. Infant Assessments o Apgar scale The name Apgar is from Virginia Apgar who came up with this scale You can receive a 0, 1, or 2 for each of the criteria (appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiration – APGAR) Scores 8 and higher are good Scores 5-7 means some assistance needed for breathing Scores <4 indicate need for immediate lifesaving treatment This often occurs in premature births or very long complicated births If resuscitation is successful, bringing a score from 4 to 10 may mean no long-term damage is likely o Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Suitable for infants up to 2 months A baby can shut out repeated noises and light and other stimuli in order to remain asleep This test is used to assess a child’s motor organization, reflexes, state changes, etc. Childbirth complications o 90% of vaginal births are normal – head first and face down Birth trauma- perhaps due to improper positioning of baby in birth canal (breech) o Meconium aspiration Meconium is the waste from the baby when they have a bowel movement which will sometimes happen during labor. It is a black stringy substance (they haven’t had any solid food so it isn’t like a turd) This can be dangerous if they accidently swallow any because then it can get into their lungs o Post-maturity (42 weeks+) Full term is about 38-39 weeks If you reach 42 weeks you’re essentially giving birth to a 1 month old baby – not a new born. They will be longer and this could cause complications to the mother Weight wise, the infant will probably lose weight because they haven’t been given solid food and nutrients and they should have been by now o Low birth weight Birth weight and gestational age are the two most important predictors of an infant’s survival and health Stillbirth vs. Miscarriage o What’s the difference between the two? A miscarriage happens in the first few weeks of pregnancy (up to 20 weeks) A miscarriage can even occur before a female even knew she was pregnant – she may just think it was her period Stillbirth is when the death of the fetus comes after 20 weeks. o 6.2:1000 lives births in US o Boys more likely to be stillborn, as well as those in multiple births o Many are small for gestational age Death during infancy o Would your child be particularly vulnerable? o Is he/she at higher risk than normal? This is when you should check your family medical history and also consider where you will be raising the baby. o What can you do to help monitor the health of your infant? If you realize the child is going to be vulnerable you can take steps consulting with a doctor and follow any advice they can give you. You can keep a baby monitor or camera in the child’s room Heat monitoring strips may also be used o How does one determine if the child died of SIDS? Silent infant death syndrome This is when a child dies under one year of age and they will do an autopsy – if they cannot figure out anything from the autopsy they use SIDS to explain (sometimes this can be linked to brain tissue not developing correctly, an improper heart rate, they were in a position where they were re-breathing in their own air and essentially die from carbon dioxide). Deaths from injuries o 90% of injury deaths in infancy due to Suffocation Motor vehicle accidents Drowning Residential fires or burns Growth patterns o Are boys and girls of the same size (length, weight, head circumference?) Separate growth charts for boys and girls They will generally grow at the same rate. Just because a baby is big doesn’t mean it is more healthy than a small baby, as long as they are growing and staying in their range they are healthy Bottle or Breast o Which is better- breast or bottle? Breast milk tends to have better nutrients and builds up the infants immune system Breast milk is also more easily digestible to infants o Are there indications that one should only be bottle fed? If a mother is on medication, has AIDS, or any disease that could be harmful to the baby o How long should the baby be breast feed? The minimum amount of time is 6 months Longer is better but at least 6 months Sometimes it is uncomfortable, nipples can get raw, and they will hurt when they are too full, if you miss a feeding it will really hurt. o How long is too long? That is up to the woman, it is very highly debated. Indications of CNS development o Reflexes o Early threats to brain development can have lasting effects on capacity of CNS. Plasticity allows brain to react, as neurons can change size and shape in response to environmental experiences Classical conditioning o Every time the toddler hears a cough they will associate it with being tickled (video from class) Operant conditioning o Teaching Baby K to clean up by praising him when he puts the rocks in the right place (video from class) Super babies o Should parents expose their infants to as much education as possible so that they will have a head start in cognitive development o Infants are capable of learning much more than we give them credit for, and it is up to parents to make use of their babies potential o Infants are exposed to a fairly interesting environment and will naturally learn as their biological systems mature o To push learning on infants is to push them into a world where anxiety and competition dominate Infant Cognitive Assessment o Bayley scales of infant and toddler development o Appropriate for most infants 1 month- 3.5 years o Looks at cognitive, language, motor, social, emotional, and adaptive behavior o Developmental quotients (DQs) are calculated – similar to IQs, with same values/scale Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment o Factors investigated are correlated with cognitive development in infants and toddlers o Looks a number of books, presence of playthings that encourage development, and level of parent involvement in the child’s life/play Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stages o 6 Sub-stages in sensorimotor development o Reflexex o Primary circular o Secondary circular o Coordinate secondary circular o Tertiary o Mental combinations Habituation/Dishabituation o Habituation Occurs when the infant displays a reduction of a response to the stimulus (looking away), suggestive that it is already familiar with the object o Dishabituation Displayed when a different stimulus is presented, and the infant will stop/reduce a response at the presentation of the stimulus If two images are shown to a baby (one that they have seen before, one they have not) then the baby should pay more attention to the new image – if they are not it is suggestive that their memory skills may be slightly off (novelty preference) Visual preferences o Infants demonstrate several visual preference patterns Curves over straight lines Complex patterns over simple 3 dimension over 2 dimensional Pictures of faces over pictures of other objects New sights over familiar sights (novelty preference) Similar discrimination findings have been noted for auditory skills Violation of expectations o Do infants innately know right from wrong? They don’t know anything but they do seem to have a sense of it Prelinguistic sounds in babies o Rhythmic intense cry – can signal hunger o Slow, rhythmic and intensifies in its tone – may signify your baby is tired o High- pitched, screechy cry – can signal pain o Slow, low cries – they just want to be held and cuddled Prelinguistic stages o Stage 1: reflexive vocalization o Stage 2: cooing and laughter o Stage 3: vocal play o Stage 4: canonical babbling (repeated of the same sound) o Stage 5: Jargon stage (a variety of different sounds taking place that aren’t any true words) Hearing Tests in Infancy o Auditory testing of infants/newborns Headphones are put over the infant’s ears where small clicking sounds will be made, sensors are then placed on the babies brain to detect whether or not the sound is being sensed by the baby, if the sensors pick up activity the baby will pass, if they don’t they will fail and that is an indication of a hearing problem in the infant. Gestures o Give examples of the different types of gestures infants/toddlers can make Language development o Discuss the theories of language acquisition (learned or innate) and decide which theory is best supported by this video. o Were there any “first words” used here? Video of the two babies standing by the fridge babbling to each other. They aren’t saying any words but their hand gestures to each other are obviously something they have seen watching their parents and other adults interact. o When babies begin to talk, how can parents or caregivers boost vocabulary development Talk to them like an adult Try to avoid “baby talking” Repeat their first words Pronounce words correctly Be responsive to vocalizations Speak with richer vocabularies and longer utterances Show positive regard for the child Provide cognitive stimulation during play Peek-A-Boo o This game is played with infants from many different cultures. Discuss how this game can be stimulating to an infant Helps babies to master anxiety with their mothers disappear Helps babies to deliver object- permanence concepts May be a social routine that helps babies learn rules that govern conversation, such as taking turns May provide practice in paying attention, a prerequisite for learning Stimulates imitative abilities
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