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HIST 111, Week 3

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by: Rachel Stein

HIST 111, Week 3 History 111

Rachel Stein
GPA 3.8

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These have supplemental readings, reading from the book, and in class notes. Posting this today so you can look over it before a possible in class quiz!
United States History to 1865
Nicole Maskiell
Class Notes
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"You're awesome! I'll be using your notes for sure moving forward :D"
Alexandro Adams

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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Stein on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 111 at University of South Carolina taught by Nicole Maskiell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 235 views. For similar materials see United States History to 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 02/03/16
Hist  111:  United  States  History  to  1865   2/2/16   Review   • Describe  recent  theories  on  the  origin  of  “red”  as  racial  category:  way  to   differentiate  between  slaves  and  white  men.  Some  Indians  have  considered   themselves  red  before  European  contact.     • Indian  Slave  Trade:  in  1708  enslaved  Indians  composed  as  much  as  14%  of  the   South  Carolina  population,  which  was  a  result  of  the  ready  market  for  war   captives  in  Charles  Town.  Some  native  groups  used  the  slave  trade  as  means  of   ridding  themselves  of  real  or  potential  rivals.     • Metacomet  or  Metacom:  Indian  chief  of  the  Wampanoag  tribe,  also  known  as   King  Phillip,  and  the  King  Phillip  war  was  the  bloodiest  war  in  American  history     o Race  was  hardened  in  the  wake  of  king  Phillips  war   • The  picture:  some  type  of  ritual,  john  Lawson  and  Gaffenright  are  depicted  as   prisoners,  therefore  this  picture  took  place  in  Carolina,  start  of  the  Tuscarora   war     Did  women  exist  in  colonial  North  America?     • Well  Behaved  Women  Seldom  Make  History  –  Laurel  Thatcher  Ulrich     Gender  during  the  17  Century   • Mrs.  Anne  Hutchinson     o She  was  a  woman  from  a  noble  family     o She  was  the  reason  her  family  moved  to  Massachusetts  Bay     ▯ Followed  famous  Reverend  John  Cotton     o Husband  acknowledged  her  as  superior  spiritually     o Used  the  context  of  childbirth  to  spread  her  theological  and  ideological   thoughts     ▯ During  labor  women  go  into  transition  (which  is  very  painful)  and   at  that  point  the  women  would  be  questioned  as  to  who  the  father   of  the  child  is     o Used  this  time  to  start  preaching  to  the  women,  she  thought  you  could   have  a  direct  relationship  with  god  and  Jesus     o Brought  to  court  to  explain  what  she  is  teaching     ▯ Therefore  she  is  banished     o Took  family  and  settled  in  Brooklyn     ▯ Family  was  attacked  by  native  Americans  and  all  killed     • Mrs.  Margaret  Brent     o Part  of  a  prominent  family  who  came  to  Maryland   o Became  first  female  landowner  after  her  brother  died,  he  attended  the   assembly  and  requested  a  vote  during  the  proceedings     o Leonard  Calvert’s  last  wishes,  naming  Margret  Brent  as  is  Executrix,  1647   o This  led  to  her  being  named  the  agent  of  his  estate   ▯ This  called  his  brother  lord  Baltimore  to  be  extremely  annoyed     o She  chose  to  raise  taxes  in  order  to  save  Maryland  financially     • Brent  and  Hutchinson  Compared   o Brent:  single  women,  made  her  way  in  owning  land  and  through  legal   ways   o Hutchinson:  fictive  widow  who  revolutionized  religious  understandings   in  Puritan  colonies   o Can  they  be  called  colonial  feminists?  Neither  of  them  extended  to  other   women  what  they  sought  for  themselves.  So  not  really.     o In  17  century  their  status  was  more  important  than  their  gender   (important!!!)     Witchcraft  and  Women   • First  woman  executed  was  Mary  Johnson  in  Connecticut  in  1650   • Witches  believed  to  be  visited  by  familiars     o Witches  get  powers  from  a  pact  with  the  devil     • Idea  of  race  in  Salem     o Tituba  was  an  Indian  slave  (a  Spanish  Indian  from  the  Tuscarora  wars  or   Caribbean)  who  many  believed  was  married  to  the  devil     o Mary  Black  and  Candy  were  both  African  Slaved  who  were  accused  of   witchcraft     ▯ Found  not  guilty  or  confessed,  but  all  lived     • Many  things  are  incorrect  about  the  Salem  Narrative     o Not  all  accused  were  women     ▯ 25%  of  all  people  accused  were  men     ▯ More  than  half  the  men  accused  were  high  status  (ministers,  ect)     o Accusers  were  all  girls   ▯ 3  groups  of  afflicted  females  and  men     • What  actually  happened  in  Salem?   o Many  people  believed  that  the  trials  started  due  to  PTSD  from  Indian   wars     o England  was  embarrassed  by  the  colonies  so  created  the  “young  girls   gone  crazy”  narrative     Changing  roles  in  the  18  Century     • Alida  Schuyler  was  born  into  a  wealthy  Dutch  family  in  upstate  New  York   o At  16  she  married  a  wealthy  39  year  old  heir  to  a  landed  estate,  who  died   and  left  her  a  considerable  fortune     o Married  her  husband’s  business  manager,  a  Scotsman  named  Robert   Livingston   o Dutch  women  were  able  to  inherit  and  hold  property   o Her  business  skills  were  so  shrewd  that  she  ran  the  manorial  estate  in  the   Hudson  valley  and  raised  several  children  while  her  husband  resided  in   NYC   o Yet,  by  the  time  her  eldest  son  Philip  came  of  age,  Alida  became  less   active  in  the  business  affairs,  a  pattern  that  reflected  the  diminished   th activities  of  elite  women  during  the  18  century     • Dynamic  of  power  shifted  after  Salem  Witch  Trials     o Power  no  longer  rests  with  family  but  rather  with  group  of  men  who   govern   o Role  of  the  father  of  the  family  is  seen  less  as  a  ruler  and  more  as   someone  loving     • Runaway  Women     o Could  run  away  from  husbands     ▯ Husbands  would  post  advertisements  for  runaway  wives     o Divorce  was  still  very  rare  and  difficult     ▯ Low  chances  of  being  able  to  remarry     o Husbands  couldn’t  completely  mistreat  their  wives     ▯ If  you  were  known  to  beat  your  wife  the  women  and  children   would  get  together  and  beat  the  man  senseless  in  public     • Eliza  Lucas,  Indigo  and  changes  for  women  at  the  dawn  of  the  Revolution   o Was  born  in  Antigua  in  the  British  West  indies  in  1722  and  emigrated  to   South  Carolina  in  1738,  after  her  father  inherited  plantations   o Knowledge  of  slaves  and  overseers  from  the  Caribbean,  Eliza  Lucas   developed  the  planting  and  processing  techniques  in  the  1740s  later   adopted  throughout  the  colony   o Wanted  something  to  plant  opposite  to  rice,  started  experimenting  with   Indigo               Chapter  4:  Colonial  Society     Introduction   • While  life  in  the  thirteen  colonies  was  shaped  in  part  by  English  practices  and   participation  in  the  larger  Atlantic  World,  emerging  cultural  patterns   increasingly  transformed  North  America  into  something  wholly  different     Consumption  and  Trade  in  the  British  Atlantic     • Britains  role  in  transatlantic  slave  trade  created  high  standard  of  living  for  many   north  American  colonists     • Wasn’t  until  trade  relations  became  strained  in  the  1760s  that  colonists   questioned  ties  to  Britain     • During  the  17  and  18  century  colonists  had  the  opportunity  to  purchase   consumer  goods     o As  incomes  of  Americans  rose  the  prices  of  commodities  fell     • Consumer  revolution:  historians  term  for  the  average  persons  ability  to  spend   money  on  consumer  goods     • Despite  increased  trade  there  was  not  a  formal  form  of  currency     o “Commodity  money”  varied  from  place  to  place     • In  1690  Colonial  Massachusetts  became  the  first  colony,  and  place  in  the  western   world,  to  issue  paper  bills  to  be  used  as  money   • Currency  was  not  the  same  from  colony  to  colony     o Was  also  often  counterfeited     o British  merchants  were  reluctant  to  accept  the  paper     • Board  of  Trade  restricted  the  use  of  paper  money  in  the  Currency  Acts  of  1751   and  1763   • Many  Americans  lived  like  aristocrats  and  some  worried  about  the  consequences   of  rising  consumerism     o Many  Americans  found  themselves  in  debt   • 13  colonies  were  far  less  profitable  than  the  sugar  producing  islands  of  the   Caribbean     o Still  relied  on  American  colonies  for  commerce  such  as  lumber     • By  1680,  sugar  exports  from  Barbados  valued  more  than  the  total  exports  of  all   the  continental  colonies     • Trade  existed  to  better  Great  Britain  and  therefore  Parliament  issues  the   Navigation  Act,  placing  taxes  on  trade     • In  order  to  avoid  taxes  thousands  of  dollars  of  illegal  goods  were  smuggled  into   the  colonies     • Parliament  levied  taxes  on  sugar,  paper,  lead,  glass  and  tea     • By  1775,  cities  dominated  American  life  and  was  highly  stratified     o Slaves  in  cities  worked  as  domestic  servants  and  in  skilled  trades     • Massachusetts  was  the  first  slave-­‐holding  colony  in  New  England     o Slavery  in  the  north  greatly  increased  due  to  maritime  travel     • Slaves,  both  rural  and  urban,  made  up  the  majority  of  the  laboring  population  on   the  eve  of  the  American  Revolution   Slavery,  Anti-­‐Slavery,  and  Atlantic  Exchange     • By  1750,  slavery  was  legal  in  every  North  American  English  colony  but  every   colony  had  their  own  implications   • Virginia  first  had  slaves  in  1619,  and  used  primogeniture  and  entail  to  make  sure   their  estates  (and  therefore  wealth)  stayed  in  tact   o Tobacco  economy  and  100,000  African  slaves  by  1750   ▯ 40%  of  colony’s  total  population     o 1705  laws  were  passed  to  protect  slave  owners,  the  slaves  couldn’t  gain   freedom  and  there  was  no  punishment  for  killing  a  slave     • South  Carolina  and  Georgia     o Slavery  was  initially  illegal  in  GA  but  this  was  overturned     o South  Carolina  had  a  majority  enslaved  African  population  in  1750   ▯ Banned  freeing  of  slaves  unless  slave  left  the  colony   ▯ Murdering  a  slave  was  a  misdemeanor     ▯ Many  of  the  slaves  grew  rice  but  fields  were  hotbeds  for  disease  so   landowners  lived  in  Charles  Town     • Many  West  Africans  were  immunity  to  malaria     ▯ Didn’t  have  as  much  direct  supervision  and  therefore  could  use   spare  time  as  they  pleased   • Underground  economic  autonomy     ▯ Low  country  slave  culture  contributed  to  Stono  Rebellion  in  1739   • Marched  for  floridas  Fort  Mose,  a  free  black  settlement  on   the  GA-­‐FL  border,  while  owners  were  in  church   o Burned  fields  and  killed  20  whites   • Slavery  was  also  important  in  mid-­‐atlantic  colonies  growing  cereal  grains     o Worked  alongside  owners  on  patroonships  and  in  maritime  trade  and   domestic  service     o In  NY  the  high  density  of  slaves  and  diverse  European  population   increased  the  threat  of  rebellion     • Quakers  were  the  first  group  to  turn  against  slavery   o Non-­‐violent  group  and  said  slavery  originated  in  war     o Also  believed  that  every  soul  was  equal     • Free  black  population  in  northern  cities  were  also  against  slavery     • Slavery  never  took  off  in  Massachusetts,  Connecticut,  or  New  Hampshire     o Absence  of  cash  crops     Pursuing  Political,  Religious  and  Individual  Freedom     • Whereas  trade  and  slavery  linked  the  colonies  and  Great  Britain,  government   and  politics  drew  them  apart     o More  people  were  involved  in  American  politics,  and  the  government  had   more  power  in  a  variety  of  areas   o Americans  also  sued  which  led  to  more  judges  and  lawyers  who  played  a   greater  role  in  the  political  system     • Biggest  difference  between  colonial  politics  and  now  was  the  lack  of  political   parties   • Political  structure  in  the  colonies  fell  under  one  of  3  categories   o Provincial   ▯ New  Hampshire,  NY,  VA,  NC,  SC,  GA   ▯ Most  tightly  controlled  by  the  crown  –  king  appointed  all   governors     o Proprietary   ▯ PA,  Delaware,  NJ,  MD   ▯ Here  governors  were  appointed  by  a  lord  proprietor,  who  had   purchased  or  received  the  rights  to  the  colony  from  the  crown   • Typically  led  to  more  freedoms     o Charter   ▯ Mass,  RI,  Conn   ▯ Had  a  3  branch  government  and  had  property  owning  men  choose   governors     • After  gov,  colonial  government  was  broken  into  2  main  divisions   o Council   ▯ The  gov  cabinet  made  of  prominent  individuals  within  the  colony     ▯ Appointed  by  gov   o Assembly     ▯ Elected,  property-­‐owning  men  whose  official  goal  was  to  ensure   that  colonial  law  conformed  to  English  law     ▯ Approved  new  taxes  and  colonial  budgets     • Thomas  Hobbes  and  John  Locke  pioneered  the  idea  that  government  was  put  in   place  by  the  people     • Women’s  role  in  the  family  became  more  complicated  –  time  of  transition     o Smaller  family  sizes  as  women  asserted  more  control  over  their  body   o Marriage  was  now  considered  emotional  too  instead  of  just  economic     • Elopement  notices  and  divorces  were  on  the  rise     o Due  to  abuse  and  inequality     • Many  elites  were  scared  of  print  culture  –  namely  political  print     • Puritans  respected  print  from  the  beginning     • Samuel  Green  and  Marmaduke  Johnson  published  the  first  bible  to  be  printed  in   American  in  1660     o Same  year  the  Eliot  Bible  was  printed  in  the  Natick  dialect  of  the  local   Algonquin  tribes     • Mass  remained  the  center  of  colonial  printing  until  Philly  overtook  boston  in   1770     o Ben  Franklin  greatly  supported  print  in  1723   o 1775  Thomas  Paine  had  his  Common  Sense  printed  in  hundreds  of   thousands  of  copies  with  Philly  printer  Robert  Bell   • 1711  a  group  of  New  England  ministers  published  a  collection  of  sermons   entitled  Early  Piety   o Claimed  forefathers  came  to  America  to  test  their  faith  against  the   challenges  of  American  and  win     • Great  Awakening  began  unexpectedly  in  the  Congregational  churches  of  New   England  in  the  1730s   o Spread  to  Presbyterians,  Baptists  and  Methodists  in  the  other  13  colonies     o Preachers  became  key  figures  in  encouraging  individuals  to  find  a   personal  relationship  with  god     • First  signs  of  religious  revival  were  in  Jonathan  Edwards’  congregation  in   Northampton  Massachusetts     o Believed  that  god  decides  in  advanced  who  was  damned  and  who  was   saved     o Most  famous  sermon  “Sinners  in  the  Hands  of  an  Angry  God”     • Most  famous  itinerant  preacher  was  George  Whitefield  and  he  invited  everyone   to  be  born  again     • As  itinerant  preachers  became  more  experimental  they  alienated  as  many   people  as  they  converted     o One  preacher  from  Conn,  James  Davenport,  convinced  his  congregation   they  had  to  dance  naked  in  circles  at  night  while  screaming  and  laughing   to  be  saved   • Divide  between  new  lights  who  believed  in  the  new  stuff,  and  old  lights  who   thought  it  was  nonsense     • Great  Awakening  provided  a  language  of  individualism  and  reinforced  print   culture   Seven  Years’  War   • American  militiamen  fought  for  the  British  against  French  Catholics  and  their   Indian  allies  in  all  of  these  engagements     o Warfare  took  a  toll  on  colonists     o Towns  were  raided  and  citizens  were  taken  captive     • 7  years  war/French  and  Indian  War     o British  referred  to  1759  as  “annus  mirabilis”  or  year  of  miracles     o Ended  with  the  peace  treaties  of  Paris  in  1762  and  Hubertusburg  in  1763   o The  fact  that  France  was  Catholic  was  a  big  issue     • Missionary  organizations  were  founded  at  the  turn  of  the  17  century  to   evangelize  Native  Americans  and  limit  them  from  being  converted  to  Catholics     Pontiac’s  War   • 1761  Neolin,  a  prophet,  revieced  a  vision  from  the  Master  of  Life  and  it  told  him   to  cast  off  the  corrupting  Europeans  and  eliminate  them  from  Indian  country     o Preached  avoidance  of  Alc  among  other  things     o Led  to  Pontiac’s  war     • Yes  war  was  over  Neolin  but  it  was  also  over  the  new  British  land  that  they  took   from  the  French   o French  treated  the  Indians  better  than  the  British  did     • War  lasted  until  1766  when  disease  and  shortage  of  supplies  undermined  the   Indian  war  effort     o Pontiac  met  with  British  official  and  diplomat  William  Johnson  at  Fort   Ontario  and  settled  for  peace     • Crown  issues  the  Royal  Proclamation  Line  of  1763  which  marked  the   Appalachian  Mountains  as  boundary  between  Indian  and  British  land,  in  order  to   try  and  prevent  further  conflicts     o Colonists  viewed  this  land  as  their  reward  for  fighting  for  the  British  for   so  long  and  were  angry         Chapter  4  Supplemental   Jonathan  Edwards  revives  Northampton,  Massachusetts,  1741   • Edwards  starts  the  revival  known  as  the  Great  Awakening     o Delivered  a  famous  sermon   ▯ Last  part  known  as  the  application,  where  hearers  were  called  to   take  action     • Tells  people  that  God  is  the  only  thing  keeping  them  out  of  hell     • God  is  angry  at  the  people     o You  have  offended  him     • Says  some  in  the  congregation  will  go  to  hell  as  soon  as  tomorrow     • “What  would  poor  damned  souls  give  for  one  day’s  such  opportunity  as  you  now   enjoy”  to  redeem  yourselves     • Then  turns  attention  to  “children”  unconverted     Eliza  Lucas  Letters,  1740-­‐1741   • Eliza  Lucas  was  born  into  a  moderately  wealthy  family  in  South  Carolina  and   grew  her  wealthy     • This  is  a  letter  to  a  friend  in  London   o Says  Charles  Town  is  polite  and  agreeable     o Chose  to  live  in  the  country,  17  miles  from  Charles  Town   o Spends  time  in  the  library  and  the  garden     o Has  the  business  of  3  plantations  to  transact     • Letter  to  her  father   o Hadn’t  heard  from  her  father  in  a  while  then  received  a  letter  and  was   happy  he  hadn’t  become  sick  and  died     o Her  father  asked  for  provisions     o Had  a  bad  season  for  crops     Extracts  from  Gibson  Clough’s  war  journal,  1759   • Enlisted  in  the  militia  in  the  7  years  war     • He  enlisted  in  the  service  of  the  English  in  1759   • Members  of  the  army  were  whipped  for  disobedience  of  orders   • Drummer  was  shot  for  stealing  a  box  of  soap     • One  corporal  stole  6  shirts  from  his  captain  and  committed  suicide     • Very  long  winter     • In  april  he  enlisted  again  for  the  campaign  against  Canada     Pontiac  Calls  for  War,  1763   • Pontiac,  an  Ottawa  war  chief,  drew  on  the  teachings  of  the  prophet  Neolin  to   rally  resistance  to  European  powers     • You  must  not  take  multiple  wives     • Bad  spirit  Manitou  speaks  to  you  when  you  do  evil  things     • No  need  for  guns  before  the  whites  came     • They  are  our  enemies,  send  them  back  to  their  country     Alibamo  Mingo,  Choctaw  leader,  reflects  on  the  British  and  French,  1765   • End  of  7  years  war  the  French  left  North  America  and  their  former  Indian  allies   were  forced  to  adapt  quickly   o Choctaw  leader  expresses  concerns  with  new  political  reality     • If  you  support  the  white  man  you  will  lead  a  good  life     • Generally  states  that  they  should  support  the  white  man  and  do  as  he  says,  it  will   lead  to  a  better  life  than  if  they  resist.    


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