HIST 111, Week 3
HIST 111, Week 3 History 111
Popular in United States History to 1865
Popular in History
This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Stein on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 111 at University of South Carolina taught by Nicole Maskiell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 235 views. For similar materials see United States History to 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Hist 111: United States History to 1865 2/2/16 Review • Describe recent theories on the origin of “red” as racial category: way to differentiate between slaves and white men. Some Indians have considered themselves red before European contact. • Indian Slave Trade: in 1708 enslaved Indians composed as much as 14% of the South Carolina population, which was a result of the ready market for war captives in Charles Town. Some native groups used the slave trade as means of ridding themselves of real or potential rivals. • Metacomet or Metacom: Indian chief of the Wampanoag tribe, also known as King Phillip, and the King Phillip war was the bloodiest war in American history o Race was hardened in the wake of king Phillips war • The picture: some type of ritual, john Lawson and Gaffenright are depicted as prisoners, therefore this picture took place in Carolina, start of the Tuscarora war Did women exist in colonial North America? • Well Behaved Women Seldom Make History – Laurel Thatcher Ulrich Gender during the 17 Century • Mrs. Anne Hutchinson o She was a woman from a noble family o She was the reason her family moved to Massachusetts Bay ▯ Followed famous Reverend John Cotton o Husband acknowledged her as superior spiritually o Used the context of childbirth to spread her theological and ideological thoughts ▯ During labor women go into transition (which is very painful) and at that point the women would be questioned as to who the father of the child is o Used this time to start preaching to the women, she thought you could have a direct relationship with god and Jesus o Brought to court to explain what she is teaching ▯ Therefore she is banished o Took family and settled in Brooklyn ▯ Family was attacked by native Americans and all killed • Mrs. Margaret Brent o Part of a prominent family who came to Maryland o Became first female landowner after her brother died, he attended the assembly and requested a vote during the proceedings o Leonard Calvert’s last wishes, naming Margret Brent as is Executrix, 1647 o This led to her being named the agent of his estate ▯ This called his brother lord Baltimore to be extremely annoyed o She chose to raise taxes in order to save Maryland financially • Brent and Hutchinson Compared o Brent: single women, made her way in owning land and through legal ways o Hutchinson: fictive widow who revolutionized religious understandings in Puritan colonies o Can they be called colonial feminists? Neither of them extended to other women what they sought for themselves. So not really. o In 17 century their status was more important than their gender (important!!!) Witchcraft and Women • First woman executed was Mary Johnson in Connecticut in 1650 • Witches believed to be visited by familiars o Witches get powers from a pact with the devil • Idea of race in Salem o Tituba was an Indian slave (a Spanish Indian from the Tuscarora wars or Caribbean) who many believed was married to the devil o Mary Black and Candy were both African Slaved who were accused of witchcraft ▯ Found not guilty or confessed, but all lived • Many things are incorrect about the Salem Narrative o Not all accused were women ▯ 25% of all people accused were men ▯ More than half the men accused were high status (ministers, ect) o Accusers were all girls ▯ 3 groups of afflicted females and men • What actually happened in Salem? o Many people believed that the trials started due to PTSD from Indian wars o England was embarrassed by the colonies so created the “young girls gone crazy” narrative Changing roles in the 18 Century • Alida Schuyler was born into a wealthy Dutch family in upstate New York o At 16 she married a wealthy 39 year old heir to a landed estate, who died and left her a considerable fortune o Married her husband’s business manager, a Scotsman named Robert Livingston o Dutch women were able to inherit and hold property o Her business skills were so shrewd that she ran the manorial estate in the Hudson valley and raised several children while her husband resided in NYC o Yet, by the time her eldest son Philip came of age, Alida became less active in the business affairs, a pattern that reflected the diminished th activities of elite women during the 18 century • Dynamic of power shifted after Salem Witch Trials o Power no longer rests with family but rather with group of men who govern o Role of the father of the family is seen less as a ruler and more as someone loving • Runaway Women o Could run away from husbands ▯ Husbands would post advertisements for runaway wives o Divorce was still very rare and difficult ▯ Low chances of being able to remarry o Husbands couldn’t completely mistreat their wives ▯ If you were known to beat your wife the women and children would get together and beat the man senseless in public • Eliza Lucas, Indigo and changes for women at the dawn of the Revolution o Was born in Antigua in the British West indies in 1722 and emigrated to South Carolina in 1738, after her father inherited plantations o Knowledge of slaves and overseers from the Caribbean, Eliza Lucas developed the planting and processing techniques in the 1740s later adopted throughout the colony o Wanted something to plant opposite to rice, started experimenting with Indigo Chapter 4: Colonial Society Introduction • While life in the thirteen colonies was shaped in part by English practices and participation in the larger Atlantic World, emerging cultural patterns increasingly transformed North America into something wholly different Consumption and Trade in the British Atlantic • Britains role in transatlantic slave trade created high standard of living for many north American colonists • Wasn’t until trade relations became strained in the 1760s that colonists questioned ties to Britain • During the 17 and 18 century colonists had the opportunity to purchase consumer goods o As incomes of Americans rose the prices of commodities fell • Consumer revolution: historians term for the average persons ability to spend money on consumer goods • Despite increased trade there was not a formal form of currency o “Commodity money” varied from place to place • In 1690 Colonial Massachusetts became the first colony, and place in the western world, to issue paper bills to be used as money • Currency was not the same from colony to colony o Was also often counterfeited o British merchants were reluctant to accept the paper • Board of Trade restricted the use of paper money in the Currency Acts of 1751 and 1763 • Many Americans lived like aristocrats and some worried about the consequences of rising consumerism o Many Americans found themselves in debt • 13 colonies were far less profitable than the sugar producing islands of the Caribbean o Still relied on American colonies for commerce such as lumber • By 1680, sugar exports from Barbados valued more than the total exports of all the continental colonies • Trade existed to better Great Britain and therefore Parliament issues the Navigation Act, placing taxes on trade • In order to avoid taxes thousands of dollars of illegal goods were smuggled into the colonies • Parliament levied taxes on sugar, paper, lead, glass and tea • By 1775, cities dominated American life and was highly stratified o Slaves in cities worked as domestic servants and in skilled trades • Massachusetts was the first slave-‐holding colony in New England o Slavery in the north greatly increased due to maritime travel • Slaves, both rural and urban, made up the majority of the laboring population on the eve of the American Revolution Slavery, Anti-‐Slavery, and Atlantic Exchange • By 1750, slavery was legal in every North American English colony but every colony had their own implications • Virginia first had slaves in 1619, and used primogeniture and entail to make sure their estates (and therefore wealth) stayed in tact o Tobacco economy and 100,000 African slaves by 1750 ▯ 40% of colony’s total population o 1705 laws were passed to protect slave owners, the slaves couldn’t gain freedom and there was no punishment for killing a slave • South Carolina and Georgia o Slavery was initially illegal in GA but this was overturned o South Carolina had a majority enslaved African population in 1750 ▯ Banned freeing of slaves unless slave left the colony ▯ Murdering a slave was a misdemeanor ▯ Many of the slaves grew rice but fields were hotbeds for disease so landowners lived in Charles Town • Many West Africans were immunity to malaria ▯ Didn’t have as much direct supervision and therefore could use spare time as they pleased • Underground economic autonomy ▯ Low country slave culture contributed to Stono Rebellion in 1739 • Marched for floridas Fort Mose, a free black settlement on the GA-‐FL border, while owners were in church o Burned fields and killed 20 whites • Slavery was also important in mid-‐atlantic colonies growing cereal grains o Worked alongside owners on patroonships and in maritime trade and domestic service o In NY the high density of slaves and diverse European population increased the threat of rebellion • Quakers were the first group to turn against slavery o Non-‐violent group and said slavery originated in war o Also believed that every soul was equal • Free black population in northern cities were also against slavery • Slavery never took off in Massachusetts, Connecticut, or New Hampshire o Absence of cash crops Pursuing Political, Religious and Individual Freedom • Whereas trade and slavery linked the colonies and Great Britain, government and politics drew them apart o More people were involved in American politics, and the government had more power in a variety of areas o Americans also sued which led to more judges and lawyers who played a greater role in the political system • Biggest difference between colonial politics and now was the lack of political parties • Political structure in the colonies fell under one of 3 categories o Provincial ▯ New Hampshire, NY, VA, NC, SC, GA ▯ Most tightly controlled by the crown – king appointed all governors o Proprietary ▯ PA, Delaware, NJ, MD ▯ Here governors were appointed by a lord proprietor, who had purchased or received the rights to the colony from the crown • Typically led to more freedoms o Charter ▯ Mass, RI, Conn ▯ Had a 3 branch government and had property owning men choose governors • After gov, colonial government was broken into 2 main divisions o Council ▯ The gov cabinet made of prominent individuals within the colony ▯ Appointed by gov o Assembly ▯ Elected, property-‐owning men whose official goal was to ensure that colonial law conformed to English law ▯ Approved new taxes and colonial budgets • Thomas Hobbes and John Locke pioneered the idea that government was put in place by the people • Women’s role in the family became more complicated – time of transition o Smaller family sizes as women asserted more control over their body o Marriage was now considered emotional too instead of just economic • Elopement notices and divorces were on the rise o Due to abuse and inequality • Many elites were scared of print culture – namely political print • Puritans respected print from the beginning • Samuel Green and Marmaduke Johnson published the first bible to be printed in American in 1660 o Same year the Eliot Bible was printed in the Natick dialect of the local Algonquin tribes • Mass remained the center of colonial printing until Philly overtook boston in 1770 o Ben Franklin greatly supported print in 1723 o 1775 Thomas Paine had his Common Sense printed in hundreds of thousands of copies with Philly printer Robert Bell • 1711 a group of New England ministers published a collection of sermons entitled Early Piety o Claimed forefathers came to America to test their faith against the challenges of American and win • Great Awakening began unexpectedly in the Congregational churches of New England in the 1730s o Spread to Presbyterians, Baptists and Methodists in the other 13 colonies o Preachers became key figures in encouraging individuals to find a personal relationship with god • First signs of religious revival were in Jonathan Edwards’ congregation in Northampton Massachusetts o Believed that god decides in advanced who was damned and who was saved o Most famous sermon “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” • Most famous itinerant preacher was George Whitefield and he invited everyone to be born again • As itinerant preachers became more experimental they alienated as many people as they converted o One preacher from Conn, James Davenport, convinced his congregation they had to dance naked in circles at night while screaming and laughing to be saved • Divide between new lights who believed in the new stuff, and old lights who thought it was nonsense • Great Awakening provided a language of individualism and reinforced print culture Seven Years’ War • American militiamen fought for the British against French Catholics and their Indian allies in all of these engagements o Warfare took a toll on colonists o Towns were raided and citizens were taken captive • 7 years war/French and Indian War o British referred to 1759 as “annus mirabilis” or year of miracles o Ended with the peace treaties of Paris in 1762 and Hubertusburg in 1763 o The fact that France was Catholic was a big issue • Missionary organizations were founded at the turn of the 17 century to evangelize Native Americans and limit them from being converted to Catholics Pontiac’s War • 1761 Neolin, a prophet, revieced a vision from the Master of Life and it told him to cast off the corrupting Europeans and eliminate them from Indian country o Preached avoidance of Alc among other things o Led to Pontiac’s war • Yes war was over Neolin but it was also over the new British land that they took from the French o French treated the Indians better than the British did • War lasted until 1766 when disease and shortage of supplies undermined the Indian war effort o Pontiac met with British official and diplomat William Johnson at Fort Ontario and settled for peace • Crown issues the Royal Proclamation Line of 1763 which marked the Appalachian Mountains as boundary between Indian and British land, in order to try and prevent further conflicts o Colonists viewed this land as their reward for fighting for the British for so long and were angry Chapter 4 Supplemental Jonathan Edwards revives Northampton, Massachusetts, 1741 • Edwards starts the revival known as the Great Awakening o Delivered a famous sermon ▯ Last part known as the application, where hearers were called to take action • Tells people that God is the only thing keeping them out of hell • God is angry at the people o You have offended him • Says some in the congregation will go to hell as soon as tomorrow • “What would poor damned souls give for one day’s such opportunity as you now enjoy” to redeem yourselves • Then turns attention to “children” unconverted Eliza Lucas Letters, 1740-‐1741 • Eliza Lucas was born into a moderately wealthy family in South Carolina and grew her wealthy • This is a letter to a friend in London o Says Charles Town is polite and agreeable o Chose to live in the country, 17 miles from Charles Town o Spends time in the library and the garden o Has the business of 3 plantations to transact • Letter to her father o Hadn’t heard from her father in a while then received a letter and was happy he hadn’t become sick and died o Her father asked for provisions o Had a bad season for crops Extracts from Gibson Clough’s war journal, 1759 • Enlisted in the militia in the 7 years war • He enlisted in the service of the English in 1759 • Members of the army were whipped for disobedience of orders • Drummer was shot for stealing a box of soap • One corporal stole 6 shirts from his captain and committed suicide • Very long winter • In april he enlisted again for the campaign against Canada Pontiac Calls for War, 1763 • Pontiac, an Ottawa war chief, drew on the teachings of the prophet Neolin to rally resistance to European powers • You must not take multiple wives • Bad spirit Manitou speaks to you when you do evil things • No need for guns before the whites came • They are our enemies, send them back to their country Alibamo Mingo, Choctaw leader, reflects on the British and French, 1765 • End of 7 years war the French left North America and their former Indian allies were forced to adapt quickly o Choctaw leader expresses concerns with new political reality • If you support the white man you will lead a good life • Generally states that they should support the white man and do as he says, it will lead to a better life than if they resist.
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