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Week 2 Notes

by: Ashley Albers

Week 2 Notes Hist 1200

Ashley Albers
GPA 3.3

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Lectures 3 and 4
Survey of American History Since 1865
Steven Watts
Class Notes
history, civil war, 1865
25 ?




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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Albers on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1200 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Steven Watts in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Survey of American History Since 1865 in History at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 02/03/16
The ordeal of Reconstruction: Race, Reconstruction, and the Market th  April 9 1965, Robert E Lee, commander of confederate army surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant and the North; concluding the blood bath of the civil war; great hope for peace and great hope for reconciliation  5 days later Abraham Lincoln was assassinated, everyone was traumatized; His assassination in many ways was a preview of upcoming attractions (a period of turmoil) as the country struggles to put things back together, as this period unfolded there were three big problems: i. How exactly to reconnect the South (politically, emotionally, and constitutionally) ii. A problem of race relations 1. How to reconstitute relationships between whites and blacks iii. Problems attending industrialization 1. Americans began to muck around with all the new social economic problems around the new industrial society which seemed to cause problems I. From moderate to Radical Reconstruction  Reconstruction taken up by Abraham Lincoln, endorsed by Andrew Johnson (would become president) Johnson was a moderate man  As the war came to a conclusion he came up with a moderate plan to put the states back together: i. Lincoln promised amnesty to all southerners all they had to do was pledge allegiance to US government ii. When only 10% of the population of a state takes the oath they are moved to create a state government to get back in the union iii. All the state governments had to do was agree they wont secede from the union and they had to accept the end of slavery  A great many northern republicans, who became known as radical republicans, were not very keen on Lincolns plan and they thought it was too lenient and thought reconstruction should look a little different, the leader of the radical republicans in congress was Thaddeus Stevens (house of representatives) i. Stevens and the Radicals say that the sOuth had violated the constitution and the fundamental principles of the US when they rebelled in 1961 and they needed to face the consequences and shouldn’t be treated with such forgiveness and they needed to reject the Lincoln Johnson plan and begin to try and place a much harsher punishing plan, so in the late 1860s there’s a very tense government with competition between white house and congress ii. 1868 tempers flair so much that the radical republicans impeach Andrew Johnson and bring him to trial and try to remove him from office and Johnson is a terrible politician and therefore didn’t help his case 1. After Lincoln’s death when he was sworn in he was so nervous he drank an entire bottle of whiskey and so stumbled out on stage and gave the oath and gave a slurred speech 2. Survived impeachment by one vote, out of office in the 1968 election and the radicals nominated Ulysses S Grant and he won the election  Radical Reconstruction put in place until about 1877 i. Racial agenda and political agenda 1. Racial: radical republicans first of all wanted to put in place a new paradox for race, a number of amendments to the constitution a. 13 th amendment ending slavery, 14 th guaranteed equal rights under the law, 15th guaranteed the right to vote to all American citizens b. Freedman’s Bureau: private agency partly funded by the government, was aimed at aiding ex-slaves in the south, setting up healthcare and medicine to ex- slaves as well as setting up schools for rudimentary education 2. When states sent their representatives by Lincoln Johnson plan the radical republicans sent them home and called a state convention where several things had to take place and they had to ratify those amendments to the constitution, secondly they had to provide for negro suffrage (right of black people to vote) a. Only then could representatives be sent to Washington DC b. While this was going on the North divided the south in 5 military districts and imposed Marshall Law II. Motivations and Results  Revenge on the South i. Northern republicans were Victorians and they looked at the world with Victorian morals and northerners viewed slavery as being morally repellant therefore the white south was morally repellent and ran against the grain of Victorians, and the north held the south morally responsible for the war/blood shed and needed to be punished for its moral sins  Race and attitudes about race i. Northern republicans were authentically in support of African American participation in the affairs of the American republic; at the same time this position was very ambiguous and radical republicans were all for participation in politics as long as African Americans stayed in the south, but as black citizens begin migrating north the white republicans in the north had the same kind of racism that white southerners did  Market Place, Logic and Ideals of the Market Place i. The northern Victorians idealized a market place society; they viewed the country as becoming a society of self-made success (Booker T. Washington is an example of self-made success) this was demanded the end of paternalism, a society of free labor, hard work, competition, self control  Results: i. Political Chaos 1. A great deal of white bitterness, southerners refused to participate in the greatest extent they could, trying to undermined what was happening so you had a flood of black participation in politics so there was blacks being elected to office (inexperienced) because whites refused to participate. ii. The full speed ahead success of market place vision of America (North) 1. Policies at the national level that push along market and industrialization growth 2. Tons of growth with railroads, (transcontinental railroad) growth of American manufacturing, great growth of public school system which hadn’t existed before this time (a way to train and educate citizens in how to be a hardworking individual, individual discipline) III. Redeeming the South  Final conclusion of the reconstruction story  Mid 1870s there was growing uneasiness about the radical reconstruction policy, some was economic i. Panic of 1873: somewhat of an economic depression, maybe this depression was a result of lack in growth of southern economy ii. Presidential Election of 1876: very important election because of the shifting of reconstruction; Rutherford B Hayes (general of civil war nominated union man) versus Samuel Tilden who was governor of New York who was somewhat of a reformer 1. Samuel Tilden won popular vote against republican candidate and then seemed to win the electoral college vote but the northerners didn’t want this to happen so the electoral vote of three southern states (Mississippi Alabama and ?) these votes were due to corruption and illegitimate 2. A commission of 8 republicans and 7 democrats set to deal with the challenge and there was a 8 to 7 vote and that decided Rutherford B Hayes resulting in threats and the Great Compromise of 1877 a. Compromise of 1877: hammered out a deal in hotel room with whiskey and cigars, agreed to go along with Hayes if the military governments in the south were ended, and if Hayes agreed to appoint several southern democrats to the cabinet and finally southern democrats had an agreement that they could hang out the government jobs of the south  New South i. In aftermath of the compromise a new southern leadership emerged composed of commercial figures (doctors, lawyers, etc.) established a new power structure devoted to 1. Industrialization 2. White supremacy: not of slavery but that keeps blacks from voting and keeps blacks in their place socially, by putting them as second class citizens ii. Henry Grady iii. Ku Klux Klan emerged to intimidate the blacks into not voting and into keeping them in their place iv. Crop Lien System – a shared crop system, black farmers give large sum of crops to white land owner v. Jim Crow Laws: great web of legal statues, one way or another kept black citizens in a legal second class system 1. Cant come in front door, secondary schools, kept from voting Terms Andrew Johnson Compromise of 1877 Radical Republicans The New South Thaddeus Stevens Henry Grady Freedman’s Bureau Ku Klux Klan Rutherford B. Hayes Crop Lien System Samuel Tilden Jim Crow Laws The incorporation of America I: Capital and Labor in the Gilded Age Late 1800s as an era of progress, 1880s and 1890s with the development of electricity, automobile, Teddy Roosevelt American Destiny, and a golden age of American innocence I. From Frontier to Factory a. Changes with the West i. Great trend of westward expansion, Americans cross the Mississippi river and start migrating to the plains and further west, Americans indeed populate the western areas now (late 19 century) 1. Transcontinental Railroad: completed in 1869 and involved the railroad system of the US completing a connection between the pacific ocean to the Atlantic (connection in Utah) 2. Oklahoma Land Rush: 1889; the last chunk of land that had been set aside for native American Indians and in 1889 they had been pushed to smaller territory and the land was opened to settlers and 100,000 gathered on the borders of Oklahoma and government officials set off guns for people to go and claim land; by 1893 all of the open territory in Oklahoma had been claimed and this was the endpoint of the settling of the American west a. End of horizontal to vertical expansion b. American Cities i. By 1900 or so there were six cities in the united states that had population of more than 500,000; Chicago (western city) form 1880-1900 tripled their population from ½ mil to 1.5 mil; NYC grew from 2 mil to 4 mil so doubling in 20 years; Baltimore, St. Louis, San Francisco etc. ii. Immigration: 1850-1880 immigration was about 2.5mil per decade however from 1880-1900 that rate doubled to about 5 mil per decade th 1. In the earlier part of the 19 century most immigrants were what were called old immigrants that were predominantly from northern Europe and protestants; in the late 19 century they were from eastern/south eastern Europe and they were Catholics and Jewish 2. Most of these immigrants settled in the major urban areas/cities c. Rise of the Factory system i. When the American civil war broke out in 1860 it was quite evident that the US was a second rate industrial power at best, the industrial output lagged behind Great Britain, France, Germany, and even small countries like the Netherlands ii. 30 years later in 1890 the US was the biggest industrial power in the world but the output of US was as big as Great Britain, France, and Germany put together iii. The logic of the market place and pursuit of profit, efficient production, is all what led to the explosive growth of factories iv. Mechanization: steam power, fossil fuel power, oil power v. Emergence of larger than life entrepreneurs (robber barrens) 1. Rockefeller, 2. Andrew Carnegie d. Very large changes in the sizes of cities and the industrial side that changed the culture of America; Polarization between the world of factory owners and business owners versus laborers, or the world of capitalists versus laborers II. The Dominant Culture a. World of businessmen and factory owners b. First glimpse of this is at the end of the Civil war in a letter written from John Sherman to famous civil war general William Sherman “people are confidently talking about millions of dollars as they used to talk about thousands” c. Notion of the self made man i. Cult of Horatio Alger: began to write in the civil war period and his books were very popular (not skilled works of literature however very revealing popular documents) usually involved a young man countryside who went to the big city and climbed to success by hard work and good moral character 1. Titles very revealing, for example, struggling upwards, mark the match boy ii. Andrew Carnegie: Horatio Alger figure come to life; was the son of poor Scottish farmer immigrants, but Carnegie was more interest in business and proved to be very smart and a good businessmen and starts in the railroad industry and shrewdly sees that the steel industry is going to be were the profit is and by the turn of the century Carnegie’s steel is the top steel company in the country 1. While he was getting wealthy he emphasized his Victorian personality (Christian gentleman, good morals) 2. Gospel of Wealth: a little talk he gave that was so popular that he turned it into a pamphlet and it said “people think they have to plow their money back into the society to give back but wealthy Americans should be philanthropists” iii. Underside of the self-made man that was captured in the notion of the confidence man 1. Confidence man: the self made man flipped over, because in a market society people don’t always play by the rules in order to climb ahead, a shaggy fearful figure of a con-man 2. Jay Gould: in many ways was a self made man (came from poor Midwest family) was a very smart wall street business man, but then he veered off the tracks and headed towards fraud and became known as a con-man a. Engages in dicey enterprises, like the new york gold conspiracy (a scheme where they bought all the gold up and then when the price began to rise they dumped it back on the market and drove a lot of business men to bankruptcy) b. Wearing fur coats and diamonds the size of golf balls and became the poster boy for con-men III. The Working Class World a. The process of mechanization and the drive for profit created a hard situation for working class people, because it degraded labor i. Nature of labor degraded skill labor and it became scut labor ii. Very dangerous places, no regulations so there were extreme safety hazards (i.e. diseases, getting caught up in machines) iii. Little reward for productivity, little incentive or opportunity to be a self made man 1. If you didn’t like your job there was always someone waiting to take your job b. By 1880s and 1890s you see a lot of workers claiming industrial slavery with high demands with low wages; kept them in a type of servitude c. People grew alienated from the industrial system and tried to escape it in any way they could i. Ethnic enclaves: put in their work during the day and then on evenings and weekends they would retreat here and live their lives (i.e. St Louis – The Hill, NYC – Harlem, Lower East Side) ii. “Tramp Culture”: hobos who took off and left their families and jobs and illegally rode trains and traveled iii. Resistance manifested for example in drinking and absenteeism and didn’t go to work at any opportunity, as well as examples of sabotage, when the boss wasn’t looking throw in a wrench to break the machine iv. Kosher Food Riot: in a Jewish area of New york was a kind of uprising of Jewish women who were bitterly angry at stores raising meat prices so they couldn’t afford it, these women broke into the stores took the food and burned it in the streets v. Labor strikes: all over everywhere you see labor organizers going on striking against labor conditions 1. Pullman Strike: 1894 against the railroads; very angry against wage cuts and they striked in Chicago which was a railway hub and the strike began to spread from city to city in America and the president evidentially imposed a junction for them to go back to work so the strike was a failure Terms Transcontinental Railroad Oklahoma Land Rush Horatio Alger Andrew Carnegie “Gospel of Wealth” Confidence Man Jay Gould New York Gold Conspiracy Industrial Capitalism “Tramp Culture” Kosher Food Riot Pullman Strike


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