Psychology Notes Week 3-Exam 1
Psychology Notes Week 3-Exam 1 1557
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa Metzgar on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1557 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Manos Akillas in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see General Psychology (PSY 11) in Psychlogy at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Motivation: Homeostatic Model -Concept of homeostatic mechanism -functions in a way that maintains the brain -believed that the brain acts like a thermostat in this way -Hunger and thirst -Hypothalamus: responsible for detecting the need to eat or drink, activates according to behavior -lateral hypothalamus initiates desire to eat or drink (if destroyed, the desire to eat or drink stops) -ventromedial hypothalamus inhibits the desire to eat or drink (if destroyed, the desire to eat and drink happens) Motivation: Non-Homeostatic Behaviors -Aggression -Not a good concept→ many behaviors, but happen for different reasons ex) play aggression vs. hunting aggression -Amygdala Theory -There is a part of the brain that controls aggression called the Amygdala that once stimulated causes aggression -Experiment with Baboons -Scientists measured how often the monkeys fought, then removed the Anygdala and found that they weren’t fighting anymore. -It was later found that this lack of aggression was due to the monkeys not being able to recognize anything in the environments around them. -Sexuality *more complicated to study because of the sensitivity & assuming honesty -Masters and Johnson’s studies -conducted human experiments -measured heart rate, skin temperature, etc. -not a natural environment/situation -influenced behavior -questionable sanity of those being experimented on *Their conclusion: Humans arousal reaches a plateau and then ends after orgasm. -Criticism of Masters and Johnson’s work -There wasn’t any at first, but it was later questioned because there was not really any useful information out of the 10,000 observations. -Experiments with animals -Better results than human experiments -Caged a male monkey, and later added a female monkey and began measuring the frequency of sex. Once the frequency got low, they removed the female and replaced her with another, and did that for a total of 3 monkeys. -Once a new monkey was added, the frequency went up and gradually decreased until sex became rare. *Sexuality is triggered by novelty -C.A. Tripp -Novelty -Barrier Theory *It’s not novelty that triggers sexuality, but barriers. ex) break ups, relationship problems Theories of Emotion -William James -“We feel sad because we cry” -Believed that behavior comes first, then emotions. -Stanley Schachter -Epinephrine experiment→ creates physical tension and arousal -Supported William James -Randomly placed people into 3 groups and gave them an epinephrine injection. Group 1 was told about the injection, group 2 was told that it was a vitamin with no side effects, and group 3 wasn’t told anything. Then they were randomly placed into two different waiting rooms with an actor: the first room had someone acting like they were in a really good mood, and the second had a grumpy actor. -When asked afterwards how they felt: Group 1: felt tense regardless of actor Groups 2 & 3: felt like the corresponding actor *Emotions aren’t as automatic as we think that they are, they come after a process of interpretation. Emotion and Personality Styles -Meyer Friedman’s theory of Type A and Type B styles Type A: very task oriented, tense, impatient, needs to get things done. *Increased risk of heart disease Type B: relaxed, procrastinator, no urgency. *Less likely to be at risk for heart disease - Found being type A versus being type B plays a role in predicting heart disease and heart attacks. -Suzanne Miller’s Monitors and blunters -Can divide people into Monitors and Blunters Monitors: seek information, stress over it Blunters: avoid information -David McClelland’s theory of needs -nAch→ the need for achievement -constantly needs to accomplish things -nPow→ the need for power - constantly needs to feel they have authority -nAff→ the need for affiliation -needs to feel they have high levels of interactions with others