HSES 248 Ch. 4 & 5
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Areidbrydon on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HSES 248 at Kansas taught by Eric Mosier in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
HSES 248 CH. 4 Breathing Emergencies o Breathing Emergency – any respiratory problem that can threaten a person’s life When air can’t travel freely and easily into the lungs Some breathing emergencies the oxygen supply to the body is greatly reduced Others the oxygen supply is cut off entirely The heart soon stops beating and blood no longer moves through the body Without oxygen, brain cells can begin to die within 4 to 6 minutes o Unless the brain receives oxygen within minutes, permanent brain damage or death will result o Background The human body need a constant supply of oxygen to survive Airway – pathway from mouth to nose 1) Air travels down the throat, through the windpipe and into the lungs 2) Oxygen in the air is transferred to the blood 3) Heart pumps the blood throughout the body 4) Blood flows through the blood vessels, delivering oxygen to the brain, heart and all other parts of the body o Respiratory Distress and Respiratory Arrest Respiratory distress – a condition in which breathing becomes difficult Most common breathing emergency Respiratory arrest – occurs when breathing has stopped. Causes of respiratory distress and respiratory arrest: Choking (partially or completely obstructed airway) Illness Chronic conditions (longlasting or frequently recurring, ex. asthma) Electrocution Irregular heartbeat Heart attack Injury to the head or brain stem, chest, lungs, or abdomen Allergic reactions Drug overdose (especially alcohol narcotic painkillers, barbiturates, anesthetics, and other depressants) Poisoning Emotional distress Drowning Asthma – inflammation of air passages that result in a temporary narrowing of the airways that carry oxygen to the lungs Wheezing – a horse whistling sound one makes during an asthma attack Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) – longterm lung disease encompassing both chronic bronchitis and emphysema Trouble breathing due to damage of the lungs Airways become partly blocked and the air sacs in the lungs lose the ability to fill with air Emphysema – a disease that involves damage to the air sacs and lungs; type of COPD Bronchitis – an inflammation of the main air passages to the lungs Acute – shortlasting o Develops after a person has had a viral respiratory infection Chronic – longlasting; type of COPD o A person must have a cough with mucus on most days of the month for at least 3 months Hyperventilation – occurs when a person’s breathing is faster and more shallow than normal; the body doesn’t take in enough oxygen to meet its demands Allergic reactions – response of the immune system to a foreign substance that enters the body Anaphylaxis – condition caused by a sever allergic reaction; anaphylactic shock o Air passages swell and restrict a person’s breathing Croup – harsh, repetitive cough that most commonly affects children younger than 5 years Airway constricts, limiting the passage of air, which causes the child to produce an unusualsounding cough that can range from a highpitched wheeze to a barking cough; mostly during evenings and nights Epiglottis – causes severe swelling of the epiglottis (piece of cartilage at the back of the tongue; swelling blocks the windpipe and leads to severe breathing problems What to look for: Trouble breathing or no breathing Slow or rapid breathing Unusually deep or shallow breathing Gasping Wheezing, gurgling, or highpitched noises Usually moist or cool skin Flushed, pale, ashen, or bluish skin Shortness of breath Dizziness or lightheadedness Pain in the chest or tingling in hands, feet, or lips Apprehensive or fearful feelings Call 911 if a person isn’t breathing or if breathing is too fast, too slow, noisy or painful Until help arrives: o Help the person rest in a comfortable position (usually sitting is more comfortable than laying down because breathing is easier) o If conscious, check for other conditions; they my not be able to speak so stick to yes or no questions o If unconscious and not breathing, immediately begin CPR starting with chest compressions o Choking Occurs when the person’s airway is partially or completely blocked If a conscious person is choking, his or her airway has been blocked by a foreign object, by swelling in the mouth or throat, or by fluids, such as vomit or blood A person with a partially blocked airway may be able to get enough air in and out of the lungs to cough or to make wheezing sounds (may get enough air to speak) A person whose airway is completely blocked cannot cough, speak, cry or breathe at all Causes: Trying to swallow large pieces of poorly chewed food Drinking alcohol before or during meals (alcohol dulls the nerves that aid swallowing) Wearing dentures (makes it difficult to sense whether food is fully chewed before it gets swallowed) Eating while talking excitedly or laughing, or eating too fast Walking, playing, or running with food or objects in mouth Cause in children & infants: Hard, gooey or sticky candy Grapes Popcorn Chewing gum Vitamins Baby powder Objects from the trash Safety pins Coins Marbles Pen and marker caps Small buttontype batteries What to look for: Coughing (forcefully or weakly) Clutching the throat with one or both hands Inability to cough, speak, cry or breathe Making highpitched noises while inhaling or noisy breathing Panic Bluish skin Losing consciousness if blockage is not removed Call 911 if the person continues to cough without coughing up the object Until help arrives: o If the choking person is coughing forcefully, let him or her try to cough up the object o A conscious adult or child who has a completely blocked airway needs immediate care; a combination of 5 back blows followed by 5 abdominal thrusts provides an effective way to clear the airway obstruction Back blows – position yourself slightly behind the person, provide support by placing one arm diagonally across the chest and bend the person forward at the waist until the upper airway is at least parallel to the ground, firmly strike the person between the shoulder blades with the heel of your other hand Abdominal thrusts – stand or kneel behind the person and wrap your arms around his or her waist, locate the navel with one or two fingers with one hand, make a fist with the other hand, place thumb side against the middle of the person’s abdomen (just above the navel and well below the lower tip of the breastbone), grab your fist with your other hand and give a quick, upward thrust into the abdomen o Special Situations in caring for the conscious choking child or adult A large or pregnant person Too large for you to reach around, obviously pregnant or is known to be pregnant, give chest thrusts instead o Chest thrusts – place your fist against the center of the person’s breastbone, then grab your fist with your other hand and give quick thrusts into the chest Being alone and choking If you’re along and choking, bend over and press your abdomen against any firm object (back of a chair, sink, table, etc.; avoid sharp edges and corners) and alternatively give yourself abdominal thrusts using your hands A person in a wheelchair Give abdominal thrusts o Caring for a conscious choking infant Back blows: Position the infant faceup on your forearm o Place one hand and forearm on the child’s back, cradling the back of the head, and one hand and forearm on the front of the infant, then use your thumb and fingers to hold the infant’s jaw while sandwiching the infant between your forearms o Turn the infant over so that he or she is facedown along your arms Lower your arm onto your thigh so that the infant’s head is lower than his or her chest then give 5 firm back blows with the heel of your hand between the shoulder blades; each black blow should be a separate and distinct attempt to dislodge the object Maintain support of the infant’s head and neck by firmly holding the jaw between your thumb and forefinger Chest thrust: Place the infant in a faceup position o Place one hand and forearm on the child’s back, cradling the back of the head, and one hand and forearm on the front of the infant, then use your thumb and fingers to hold the infant’s jaw while sandwiching the infant between your forearms o Turn the infant onto his or her back Lower your arm that is supporting the infant’s back onto your opposite thigh, infant’s should be lower than his or her chest Place the pads of two or three fingers in the center of the infant’s chest just below the nipple line Use the pads of these fingers to compress the breastbone…compress the breastbone 5 times about 1½ inches and then let the breastbone return to its normal position, keep your fingers in contact with the infant’s breastbone o Caring for a choking adult or child who becomes unconscious Carefully lower them to the ground and begin CPR starting with compressions o Caring for a choking infant who becomes unconscious Carefully place him or her on a firm, flat surface and begin CPR starting with compressions HSES 248 CH. 5 Sudden Illness o Sudden illnesses may be linked with chronic conditions Include degenerative diseases (heart and lung diseases), a hormone imbalance (diabetes), epilepsy, an allergy can cause a sudden and sometimes dangerous reaction to certain substances When checking a person, look for a medical identification (ID) tag, bracelet, necklace or anklet indicating that the person has a chronic condition or allergy o Specific sudden illnesses Fainting – temporary loss of consciousness; insufficient supply of blood to brain for short period of time Condition results from a widening of the blood vessels in the body causes blood to drain away from the brain to the rest of the body What to look for o Person who is about to faint often becomes pale, begins to sweat and then loses consciousness and collapses o A person who feels weak or dizzy may prevent a fainting spell by lying down or sitting with his or her head level with the knees When to call 911 o Call if in doubt about the condition of a person who has fainted What to do until help arrives o Lower person to the ground, position on his or her back, lying flat, loosen any tight clothing, check for breathing o If the person vomits roll him or her onto one side Seizures – the result of abnormal electrical activity in the brain and causes temporary, involuntary changes in body movement, function, sensation, awareness or behavior Cause when the normal functions of the brain are disrupted by injury, disease, fever, infection, metabolic disturbances or conditions causing a decreased oxygen level Epilepsy – chronic seizure condition Febrile seizures – brought on by a rapid increase in body temperature; young children and infants may be at risk (most common in children younger than 5 years) o Often are caused by infections of the ear, throat or digestive system and are most likely to occur when a child or an infant experiences a rapid rise in temperature o What to look for A blank stare A period of distorted sensation during which the person is unable to respond Uncontrolled muscular contractions, called convulsion, which last several minutes A person with epilepsy may experience aura, an unusual sensation or feeling (visual hallucination, strange sound, taste or smell, or an urgent need to get safety) o When to call 911 The seizure last more than 5 minutes The person has multiple seizures with no signs of slowing down The person appears to be injured or fails to regain consciousness after the seizure Cause of seizure is unknown Person is pregnant Person has diabetes Person has diabetes Person is a young child or an infant and experienced a febrile seizure Seizure takes place in water Person is elderly and could have suffered a stroke Person’s first seizure o What to do until help arrives DO NOT try to stop the seizure Try to prevent injury (make sure that the environment is as safe as possible; remove nearby furniture or other objects) Protect the person’s airway and make sure that the airway is open after the seizure has ended DO NOT hold or restrain the person DO NOT put anything in the person’s mouth or between teeth (people rarely bite their tongues or cheeks hard enough to cause bleeding) When the seizure is over, make sure that the person’s airwayis open If there is fluid in the person’s mouth, such as saliva, blood or vomit, roll him or her on one side so that the fluid drains from the mouth If the child or infant has a febrile seizure, it is important to immediately cool the body by giving a sponge bath with lukewarm water The person may be drowsy and disoriented or unresponsive for a period of time Check to see if he or she was injured during the seizure. Be comforting and reassuring Stay on the scene with the person until he or she is fully conscious and aware of the surroundings Stroke – brain attack; caused when blood flow to a part of the brain is cut off or when there is bleeding into the brain Usually caused by a blockage in the arteries that supply blood to the brain Once the blood flow is cut off, that part of the brain starts to “suffocate” and die unless the blood flow can be restored Blockages can be caused by blood clots that travel from other parts of the body, like the heart, or they can be caused by slow damage to the arteries over time from diseases such as high blood pressure and diabetes o 3 leading killer o Leading cause of longterm disabilities Risk factors: o High blood pressure o Diabetes o Cigarette smoking o Diet Prevention o Control your blood pressure o Quit smoking o Eat a healthy diet o Exercise regularly o Maintain a healthy weight o Control diabetes Diabetic emergencies Diabetes – the inability of the body to change sugar (glucose) from food into energy o Process is regulated by insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas Two major types of diabetes: o Type I – “juvenile diabetes”; begins in childhood, occurs when the body produces little or no insulin People with Type I diabetes must inject insulin into their bodies daily and are therefore considered to be insulindependent Type I diabetes is a chronic disease that currently has no cure o Type II – occurs in adults but also can occur in children; the body makes insulin but not enough to meet the body’s needs or the body becomes resistant to the insulin produced Since Type II diabetes is a progressive disease, people with this type of diabetes eventually may need to use insulin A diabetic emergency is caused by an imbalance between sugar and insulin in the body o Hyperglycemia – too much sugar in the blood People who take insulin to control diabetes may have injectable medication with them to care for hyperglycemia o Hypoglycemia – too little sugar in the blood If the diabetic person advises you that he or she needs sugar, give sugar in the form of several glucose tablets or glucose paste, a 12ounce serving of fruit juice, milk, nondiet soft drink or table sugar dissolved in a glass of water Allergic reactions – when a person’s immune system overreacts to the antigens Caused by over activity of the immune system against specific antigens (foreign substances). Allergic reactions can range from mild to severe. o Mild reaction: itchy skin rash from touching poison ivy o Severe reactions can cause a lifethreatening condition called anaphylaxis (also called anaphylactic shock). Anaphylaxis happens within seconds or minutes after contact with the substance; skin or area of the body that comes in contact with the substance usually swells and turns red. o Poisoning Types of poisoning: Swallowed Inhaled o Gases o Fumes o Drugs Absorbed Injected o Special care considerations Toxic fumes Chemicals Substance abuse
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