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Week 2 notes for general chemistry 2.

by: Matthew Goetz

Week 2 notes for general chemistry 2. chem 10061-001

Marketplace > Kent State University > Chemistry > chem 10061-001 > Week 2 notes for general chemistry 2
Matthew Goetz
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About this Document

This notes cover the functional groups that we learned and also the beginning of intermolecular forces.
general chemistry 2
David bowers
Class Notes
Functional groups. Intermolecular forces.




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Matthew Goetz on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to chem 10061-001 at Kent State University taught by David bowers in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see general chemistry 2 in Chemistry at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 02/03/16
Gen Chem 2 Notes: Week 2   Functional Groups: Specific combinations of atoms that react in a set way.  ­ These combinations determine the physical and chemical properties of molecules.  ­ They also determine polarity of molecules, for they may have dipoles.   An R group is merely a Carbon or other organ atom bound to the carbon chain.  ­ These don’t matter in regards to functional groups.   Alkene: A carbon double bonded to a carbon.   Alkyne: A carbon triple bonded to a carbon.   Alcohol: A carbon bound to an oxygen that is also bound to a hydrogen.  ­ The names for these have a –ol suffix ­ Example: ethanol, methanol.   Haloalkane: This is anywhere where just a halogen is bonded to a carbon.  ­ These are named with the name of the halogen as a prefix.  ­ Example: Bromoethane, Flouromethane.   Amine: This is where a Nitrogen is bound to a carbon.  It is primary, secondary, or tertiary depending on # of H’s. ­ Primary is two hydrogens.  ­ Secondary is one hydrogen.  ­ Tertiary is no hydrogens attached to the nitrogen.  ­ The name ends with an –amine suffix.  ­ Example: Methylamine  Aldehyde: This is when a carbon is attached to an O and a terminal H.  ­ These are named with an –al suffix.  ­ Examples: methanal (formaldehyde) and ethanal (acetaldehyde).   Ketone: This is when an O is double bonded to a C in a carbon chain.  ­ The names of these are ended with an –one suffix.  ­ Example: Propanone.   Carboxylic Acid: This is when there is a –COOH present.  ­ These end with an –oic acid.   Ester: This is when two oxygens are bound into a carbon chain.  ­ They are named with an –oate suffix.   Amide: This is when both a N and an O are bound to C’s  ­ These are named with an –amide suffix.   Nitrile: This is when a carbon is triple bonded to a N.  ­ They are named with a –nitrile suffix.  Chapter 12: Intermolecular forces  Phase: A solid, liquid, gas, or plasma.   Intermolecular forces are potential energy that hold molecules together.   Coulomb’s Law: The closer two charges are, and the stronger they are, the stronger the  attraction will be between them.   This section has 2 major equations:  And  The first equation is used to show energy change throughout a single phase.  The second equation is used when there is a phase change involved.  Liquid-Gas Equilibrium: Vaporization and condensation occur at an equal rate in a vacuum. ­ Liquids always have vapors above them, giving them a vapor pressure. ­ Vapor pressure is the pressure exerted by that vapor on the liquid.  An open system is one in which no equilibrium is present.  A closed system is one in which a liquid-gas equilibrium is present. ­ Therefore, evaporation and condensation happen at the same time and rate.  At higher temperatures molecules evaporate faster.  The effects of temperature on the pressure of gas is nonlinear, and expressed with by the Clausius- Clapeyron equation, which I unfortunately may not find online in a good representation… So I will try to explain it the best I may verbally. ­ This equation is the natural log of (pressure two divided by pressure one)= (change in heat of vaporization divided by the constant 8.3143) x (1/temperature 2)-(1/temperature 1). ­ My apologies that this equation may be poorly represented. ­ This equation shows the relationship between temperature and pressure change in a system.


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