Week 2 notes for general chemistry 2.
Week 2 notes for general chemistry 2. chem 10061-001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Matthew Goetz on Wednesday February 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to chem 10061-001 at Kent State University taught by David bowers in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see general chemistry 2 in Chemistry at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 02/03/16
Gen Chem 2 Notes: Week 2 Functional Groups: Specific combinations of atoms that react in a set way. These combinations determine the physical and chemical properties of molecules. They also determine polarity of molecules, for they may have dipoles. An R group is merely a Carbon or other organ atom bound to the carbon chain. These don’t matter in regards to functional groups. Alkene: A carbon double bonded to a carbon. Alkyne: A carbon triple bonded to a carbon. Alcohol: A carbon bound to an oxygen that is also bound to a hydrogen. The names for these have a –ol suffix Example: ethanol, methanol. Haloalkane: This is anywhere where just a halogen is bonded to a carbon. These are named with the name of the halogen as a prefix. Example: Bromoethane, Flouromethane. Amine: This is where a Nitrogen is bound to a carbon. It is primary, secondary, or tertiary depending on # of H’s. Primary is two hydrogens. Secondary is one hydrogen. Tertiary is no hydrogens attached to the nitrogen. The name ends with an –amine suffix. Example: Methylamine Aldehyde: This is when a carbon is attached to an O and a terminal H. These are named with an –al suffix. Examples: methanal (formaldehyde) and ethanal (acetaldehyde). Ketone: This is when an O is double bonded to a C in a carbon chain. The names of these are ended with an –one suffix. Example: Propanone. Carboxylic Acid: This is when there is a –COOH present. These end with an –oic acid. Ester: This is when two oxygens are bound into a carbon chain. They are named with an –oate suffix. Amide: This is when both a N and an O are bound to C’s These are named with an –amide suffix. Nitrile: This is when a carbon is triple bonded to a N. They are named with a –nitrile suffix. Chapter 12: Intermolecular forces Phase: A solid, liquid, gas, or plasma. Intermolecular forces are potential energy that hold molecules together. Coulomb’s Law: The closer two charges are, and the stronger they are, the stronger the attraction will be between them. This section has 2 major equations: And The first equation is used to show energy change throughout a single phase. The second equation is used when there is a phase change involved. Liquid-Gas Equilibrium: Vaporization and condensation occur at an equal rate in a vacuum. Liquids always have vapors above them, giving them a vapor pressure. Vapor pressure is the pressure exerted by that vapor on the liquid. An open system is one in which no equilibrium is present. A closed system is one in which a liquid-gas equilibrium is present. Therefore, evaporation and condensation happen at the same time and rate. At higher temperatures molecules evaporate faster. The effects of temperature on the pressure of gas is nonlinear, and expressed with by the Clausius- Clapeyron equation, which I unfortunately may not find online in a good representation… So I will try to explain it the best I may verbally. This equation is the natural log of (pressure two divided by pressure one)= (change in heat of vaporization divided by the constant 8.3143) x (1/temperature 2)-(1/temperature 1). My apologies that this equation may be poorly represented. This equation shows the relationship between temperature and pressure change in a system.
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